11 November 1941

11 November 1941

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11 November 1941



War at Sea

German submarine U-580 sunk in collision with German merchantman off Memel

11 November 1941 - History

Note: I had transcribed this speech nearly two years ago, and just discovered it in my files. Its perfect place now is in this section that didn't exist at the time - How Wars Are Made - Behind the Scenes .

As I re-read my prefatory comments and FDR's speech, the statements of Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. ring through my mind in response to FDR's statement regarding U.S. entanglement in WWI, and "why Americans fought, and must continue to fight". Here's the REAL reason:

"In defense of World Order, U.S. Soldiers [will] have to kill and die. . .

"We are not going to achieve a new world order without paying for it in blood as well as in words and money".

A NEW WORLD ORDER! THAT is the one and only reason U.S. Soldiers have fought in every single war created by the subterranean Creatures. . . and there has never been a war that wasn't orchestrated by them, for that very reason. Not to defend our country not to preserve liberty and freedom. . . only to achieve a NEW WORLD ORDER!

-- Jackie -- January 27th, 2004

Transcribed from Voices of History - Great Speeches and Papers of the Year 1941 - Franklin Watts, Inc New York. Introduction by Charles A. Beard - Edited by Franklin Watts.

At the present time, as far as we know, the only source of this book from which many relevant speeches of that crucial time period are recorded is from your public library. Had it not been for my dear friend and history mentor, Effie Burnthorn, I would never have known about it.

Because books of this nature are so quickly disappearing from the 'public' libraries, we've spoken with (and urged) Phil Serpico at Omni Christian Book Club to seriously consider the possibility of their reprinting this most important work, and have promised - if they will do so - to enthusiastically promote the book.

Reading the speeches, beginning in January, 1941 through December which marked the 'official' entry of the U.S. into WWII, a story is laid out to the reader. The 'official' entry was not the start of U.S. forces being used militaristically in WWII, for as we've discovered Roosevelt gave the orders to U.S. Naval forces to "shoot on sight" any German ship or U-Boat, anywhere on the high seas in September, 1941.

The book itself exposes many of the lies told the American and British people in every aspect of the war (although the lies will not be as obvious to readers who haven't the true facts) and most significantly we see/hear the signature of those who have been the sole beneficiaries of wars throughout the ages: the International Masters of Finance. . . they call themselves Jews.

In our recent past, billions of dollars have been made from every war fought, and each war has been a giant step toward the evil entanglements in which we find ourselves today. the neverendingwar on Terror. This war was NOT planned by George W. Bush. He is merely a 'puppet' installed by the puppet masters and faithfully carrying out their orders. We are experiencing today the culmination of a plan laid thousands of years ago in the insidious political program for World Dominion.

The 'signature' of which we speak are the flowery words about a "lasting and just world peace" " making the world safe for democracy " and the under-handed but overt references to "world trade" which agreements -- the GATT/WTO and the NAFTA -- have destroyed the job base, the economy and the entire culture of this nation. along with the planned "browning of America".

Most recently I've found myself in a reading 'frenzy'. for facts discovered in one book create more questions to which answers must be and have been found in others. Combined, they've helped to put together more and more pieces of this thousand-piece-puzzle.

Pieces are still missing - for me - and yet I am compelled to begin sharing this information from the place where I am at this very moment. I just finished reading the speech transcribed below -- FDR telling Americans why they fought in the first Great War, and why we must fight eternally, if necessary. This was November 11th, 1941 - less than four weeks before the orchestrated Pearl Harbor attack.

You will notice in the speech FDR spoke of the 'danger to liberty' which necessitated Americans' fighting and dying in WWI, although he never identifies what that danger was.

Having learned much about the covert machinations which have dragged Americans into war - at this point, more from the WWII era than the first Great War , as it was originally dubbed - and hearing the outrageous gibberish from the Zionist controlled Franklin Delano Roosevelt. I sat down immediately to transcribe it for you.

I sadly acknowledge that only the few who have not fallen into a somnambulistic, comatose state as a result of the propaganda from 'Christian' churches, Jewish Synagogues, and the Zionist-controlled media will appreciate this speech.

So. . . this is for you. With Love -- Jackie -- February 15, 2002


Arlington Cemetery, November 11, 1941 - White House news release

Among the great days of national remembrance, none is more deeply moving to Americans of our generation than the Eleventh of November, the Anniversary of the Armistice of 1918, the day sacred to the memory of those who gave their lives in the war which that day ended.

Our observance of this Anniversary has a particular significance in the year 1941.

For we are able today as we were not always able in the past to measure our indebtedness to those who died.

A few years ago, even a few months, we questioned, some of us, the sacrifice they had made. Standing near to the tomb of the Unknown Soldier, Sergeant York of Tennessee, on a recent day spoke to such questions.

"There are those in this country today", said Sergeant York, "who ask me and other veterans of World War Number One, 'What did it get you?' "

Today we know the answer -- all of us. All who search their hearts in honesty and candor know it.

We know that these men died to save their country from a terrible danger of that day. We know, because we face that danger once again on this day.

People who asked that question of Sergeant York, and his comrades forgot the one essential fact which every man who looks can see today.

They forgot that the danger which threatened this country in 1917 was real -- and that the sacrifice of those who died averted that danger.

Because the danger was overcome they were unable to remember that the danger had been present.

Because our freedom was secure they took the security of our freedom for granted and asked why those who died to save it should have died at all.

"What was there in it for you?"

If our armies of 1917 and 1918 had lost there would not have been a man or woman in America who would have wondered why the war was fought. The reasons would have faced us everywhere. We would have known why liberty is worth defending as those alone whose liberty is lost can know it. We would have known why tyranny is worth defeating as only those whom tyrants rule can know.

But because the war had been won we forgot, some of us, that the war might have been lost.

Whatever we knew or thought we knew a few years or months ago, we know now that the danger of brutality and tyranny and slavery to freedom-loving peoples can be real and terrible.

We know why these men fought to keep our freedom -- and why the wars that save a people's liberties are wars worth fighting and worth winning -- and at any price.

The men of France, prisoners in their cities, victims of searches and of seizures without law, hostages for the safety of their masters' lives, robbed of their harvests, murdered in their prisons -- the men of France would know the answer to that questions. They know now what a former victory of freedom against tyranny was worth.

The Czechs too know the answer. The Poles. The Danes. The Dutch. The Serbs. The Belgians. The Norwegians. The Greeks.

We know that it was, in literal truth, to make the world safe for democracy that we took up arms in 1917. It was, in simple truth and in literal fact, to make the world habitable for decent and self-respecting men that those whom we now remember gave their lives. They died to prevent then the very thing that now, a quarter century later, has happened from one end of Europe to the other.

Now that it has happened we know in full the reason why they died.

We know also what obligation and duty their sacrifice imposes upon us. They did not die to make the world safe for decency and self-respect for five years or ten or maybe twenty. They died to make if safe . And if, by some fault of ours who lived beyond the war, its safety has again been threatened, then the obligation and the duty are ours.

It is in our charge now, as it was America's charge after the Civil War, to see to it "that these dead shall not have died in vain". Sergeant York spoke thus of the cynics and doubters: "The thing they forget is that liberty and freedom and democracy are so very precious that you do not fight to win them once and stop. Liberty and freedom and democracy are prizes awarded only to those peoples who fight to win them and then keep fighting eternally to hold them."

The people of America agree with that. They believe that liberty is worth fighting for. And if they are obliged to fight they will fight eternally to hold it.

This duty we owe, not to ourselves alone, but to the many dead who died to gain our freedom for us -- to make the world a place where freedom can live and grow into the ages. [End of FDR speech]

Untold war stories: Mars and M&M’s military history

Mars' M&M's brand has a strong military heritage and was created in wartime for US troops. Photo: Mars

Tomorrow (November 11) marks the anniversary of the end of World War I. An armistice was signed between major powers on 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918.

The US will honor its armed forces on what it renamed Veterans Day in 1954.

The US federal holiday was previously termed Armistice Day, and continues to be observed under this name in Britain, France and Belgium.

M&M’s in US army rations​

Tim Lebel, president of sales, for Mars Chocolate North America, told ConfectioneryNews: “There are many interesting stories about Mars and military history, but one of the most interesting is that [M&M’s] was made exclusively for the US military during World War II for use in MRE’s (Meals Ready to Eat) because of their durability in warm climates.”

M&M's tube from 1940. Source: Mars

M&M’s was created in 1941 in Newark, New Jersey during World War II. The sugar-coated shells made the product ideal as a non-melt ration for American soldiers deployed overseas.

“However, once they returned home after the war, the soldiers missed their favorite treats, and Mars began producing M&M’S for the masses in 1947,” ​said Lebel.

M&M’s packages for the Red Cross​

M&M’s is today the number two US chocolate confectionery brand weighing less than 3,5oz with $456m in dollar sales, according to IRI data for the 52 weeks up to August 7, 2016.

The brand has just announced the arrival of a new SKU, M&M’s Caramel,​​ to be introduced in April next year.

The special cellophane bags of M&M’s were also made beginning in 1945 specifically for the use of the Red Cross, according to Mars.

“Mars was a large supporting partner to the military in both the US and UK during World War II,” ​said Lebel.

Uncle Ben’s for the troops

Mars acquired a patent for parboiling rice in 1942 at its Houston, Texas factory. Its process protected the rice from insect infestation, allowing the military to ship it to overseas troops. “During the war, this factory’s total production was exclusively for the military with the name ‘Converted Brand Rice.’ After the war, the product was rebranded to the “Uncle Ben’s” brand…,” said Lebel.

World War I business impact​

Mars’ business was not significantly affected by World War I as, by the mid-1910s, founder Frank C. Mars had only just started making and selling butter cream candy from his kitchen in Tacoma, Washington.

"So during World War I, many of the Mars products today’s consumers know and love hadn’t yet been invented,”​ said Lebel.

“However, in the period between the first and second world wars, the Mars business grew with the launch of beloved products such as Milky Way, Snickers, Mars Bars and 3 Musketeers," ​he continued.

Mars starts exports between the wars​

Mars began to expand its chocolate business overseas in 1931. It started to produce the Mars bar a year later from its first UK factory.

The Mars bar was considered an equivalent to the US Milky Way bar. The company introduced Maltesers to Europe in 1936, three years before World War II began.

It also expanded into pet food in 1935 with dog food brand Chappie and cat food brand Kitekat. Both products were advertised and sold in the UK during World War II.

Mars continues its military support​

“Today, Mars partners closely with Operation Gratitude, an organization that sends care packages to US service members deployed overseas,”​ he said.

The company has donated $750,000 worth of packages so far this year to commemorate M&M’s 75th anniversary. It also still supports the Military MRE (Meals Ready to Eat) program, which sends seasonal products to US troops overseas.

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Nov. 25, 1941: CRAF pilot in spotlight at musicians' banquet

More than 250 musicians, their wives and friends including a former trumpet player who will leave next week for England to join the RAF, attended the annual banquet and dance of the Pittsfield Federation of Musicians in the Greylock room of the Berkshire Restaurant last night.

It was the largest and most successful event of its kind ever held by the local union. Speakers included Lawrence K. Miller, editor of The Eagle Monroe B. England, owner of Radio Station WBRK and Mayor James Fallon. Rev. Timothy J. Champoux, assistant at St. Mark’s Church, gave the invocation. Charles DeBlois, president of the union, presided and after introducing the speakers, called upon two veteran musicians to take bows. They were Arthur E. Clark, the oldest musician present, and James McCue, an honorary member of the federation.

Also attending were officers of the North Adams Federation of Musicians and an orchestra from that city played for dancing following the speaking program.

The local federation’s territory takes in three states, Connecticut, Massachusetts and New York. Members were present from Canaan, Conn., Southern Berkshire towns, Pittsfield and the Lebanon Valley.

While at his home in Housatonic on furlough from the Canadian RAF, Watson Wordsworth, 27, former trumpet player in the popular Wordy Brothers orchestra, joined his former musician friends before leaving from Halifax soon for England where he will “go into action” with the Royal Air Force in the battle against the Axis powers.

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Watson joined the Canadian RAF almost 10 months ago and his vacancy in the Wordy Brothers orchestra eventually led to a decision of his brother, Winston, the leader, to disorganize the band “for the duration of the emergency.”

Watson, a graduate of Searles High School, attended Middlebury (Vt.) College, two years. He enlisted in Canada as an air craftsman and has climbed through the ranks in 10 months to win a sergeant-pilot’s rating.

The Housatonic man, son of Rev. Watson Wordsworth, pastor of the Congregational Church, and Mrs. Wordsworth, arrived home Saturday night from Brantford, Ontario, where he received his training as a pilot. During recent weeks he gained considerable experience in night flights with twin engine bombers.

When he leaves Nova Scotia, Watson will pilot an American made bomber. After arriving in England he will go through an operational training period for six weeks before going into active battle.

Smiling and confident that England will win the war, the 27-year-old trumpet player assured fellow musicians at the banquet that he will be back at his old job in his orchestra as soon as the war is over.

This Story in History is selected from the archives by Jeannie Maschino, The Berkshire Eagle.

Late in the new movie The Report, Adam Driver’s Dan Jones argues with his prospective defense attorney over who really said, “History is written by the victors.” The lawyer (played by Corey Stoll) attributes the quote to Winston Churchill, but Jones counters by pointing to an earlier iteration of the sentiment by Hermann Göring, Churchill’s enemy in World War II. So: Who said it first, the victorious Churchill or the vanquished Göring?

Neither of them. At a bare minimum, Driver’s Jones is correct to point out that Göring is indeed recorded as having voiced this sentiment at the Nuremberg trials. In the original German, Göring is reported to have said, “Der Sieger wird immer der Richter und der Besiegte stets der Angeklagte sein,” which more or less translates to the quote Driver utters in the film, “The victor will always be the judge, and the vanquished the accused.”

As for Churchill, while he is strongly associated with the aphorism, as seen on inspiring Pinterest macros, at Brainy Quote, and in taunting tweets from WWE wrestlers, there’s actually no concretely documented instance in which he’s known to have uttered “History is written by the victors.” There’s a good chance part of the confusion here comes from a joke Churchill actually did say, in a speech before the House of Commons on Jan. 23, 1948: “For my part, I consider that it will be found much better by all parties to leave the past to history, especially as I propose to write that history myself.” Churchill was apparently fond of the line, as he had been trotting out versions of it since the 1930s. He even tried another version of the witticism on Josef Stalin.

So who really coined the phrase? It was in use long before either Churchill or Göring uttered their variations. “I believe that the adage evolved over time,” says Garson O’Toole, proprietor of the indispensable site Quote Investigator. “There are versions of the saying in English, French, Italian, and German. But most of the early instances … do not contain the adage in general form. These instances are precursors.”

For example, on the mailing list of the American Dialect Society, quote researcher Ken Hirsch has pointed to instances in French from 1842 (“[L]’histoire est juste peut-être, mais qu’on ne l’oublie pas, elle a été écrite par les vainqueurs” or “[T]he history is right perhaps, but let us not forget, it was written by the victors”) and Italian from 1852 (“La storia di questi avvenimenti fu scritta dai vincitori”—or, as Hirsch translates it, “The history of these events was written by the winners”). And by 1844, as Hirsch noted, at least one of these narrower statements had made it into English. A description of defeated Maximilien Robespierre, the Jacobin hero during the French Revolution, described the state of his reputation like so: “Vanquished—his history written by the victors—Robespierre has left a memory accursed.”

But in each case these were not broad pronouncements about the nature of history itself. Those arrived toward the end of the 19 th century. For example, in 1889, as O’Toole told me, one biographer’s description of the 1746 Battle of Culloden in Scotland laments that we will never know how many members of his subject’s clan died on the battlefield, because “it is the victor who writes the history and counts the dead.”

Two years later, the saying was in use in United States. In 1891, Missouri Sen. George Graham Vest, a former congressman for the Confederacy who was still at that late date an advocate for the rights of states to secede, used the phrase in a speech, reprinted by the Kansas City Gazette and other papers on the next day, Aug. 21, 1891. “In all revolutions the vanquished are the ones who are guilty of treason, even by the historians,” Vest said, “for history is written by the victors and framed according to the prejudices and bias existing on their side.” In other words, the world has rewritten history to credit the saying to one of the 20 th century’s greatest victors, but it’s always been very popular with history’s biggest losers.

Thanks to the editor of the Yale Book of Quotations, Fred Shapiro, and to the Quote Investigator, Garson O’Toole, for critical research into the central question of this article.

Lenin 1917-24

In early April 1917 Lenin predicted the failure of the Provisional Government.

  • He disentangled the Bolsheviks from their associations with the Provisional Government
  • He provided them with a programme: ‘Bread, Peace and Land’.
  • He provided them with a strategy.
  • Before Lenin was forced back into hiding and exile in June, support for Bolshevism was already growing among the population at large, in the army and in the navy, stationed at nearby Kronstadt. Subjecting the army and the population to propaganda to create a second, proletarian revolution.
  • Lenin remained the acknowledged leader of the Bolsheviks, though he was ‘on the run’ and rarely in Petrograd.
  • He finally decided on the necessity of revolution in October, overcoming the opposition from Kamenev and Zinoviev.

In communist terms, the proletariat is the industrial working class. It does not include the free peasantry or the bourgeoisie (the middle class).

  • Bolshevik theory – October Revolution had marked victory of proletariat over bourgeoisie
  • Change to proletarian from bourgeoisie economy could not happen over night
  • Would need ‘state capitalism’ period – retaining main economic structure of tsars
  • World War I had brought near collapse of backward Russian economy
  • Industrial production fallen
  • Inflation high, transport crippled, famine and riots

Lenin and the Bolsheviks did not gain real power immediately after the revolution. The new government was a coalition between the Bolsheviks and the Left Social Revolutionaries.

Declarations on taking power

Lenin immediately issued two decrees. They gave his supporters much of what they expected from the Revolution:

1. The Decree on Peace

  • This called for a just peace with Germany without losing power or land, or paying reparations. Even after a violent take-over in Moscow the new government had no control over the rest of the country
  • Trotsky was unable to stop the war without Germany’s agreement. As Commissar for Foreign Affairs he relied on a policy of ‘no peace, no war’ for the next few weeks
  • Then the Germans began to advance again and the Russian Government had to call for peace negotiations. This meant surrender

2. The Decree on Land

  • This nationalised all land but allowed it to be redistributed to the peasants
  • Lenin had taken over the whole Social Revolutionary land programme in a bid to gain popularity with the majority of the population
  • Acceptance of actions happened before Bolsheviks’ seizure of power over new policy
  • Recognised land seizures by Peasants
  • Lenin had offered in ‘Land to Peasants’ slogan

Decree on Workers’ Council

  • 1917 large number of factories taken over by workers
  • Workers’ committees rarely ran factories efficiently - serious fall in industrial output
  • Decree accepted takeover – but instructed maintenance of strict order and discipline in work
  • Government organisation formed to take charge of existing institutions for regulation of economic life
  • Introduced nationalisation of banks and railways
  • Declared foreign debts would not be honoured – nationalised foreign companies and froze foreign assets in Russia
  • Transport system brought under order
  • In December 1917 Lenin established the Cheka, under Felix Dzerzhinsky. This was a forerunner of the KGB. It had rights to investigate, try and execute enemies of the state outside normal courts
  • It was used to terrorise and remove opponents, and marks the beginning of the Bolshevik move towards violence
  • Lenin determined to impose absolute Bolshevik rule through suppression of political opposition
  • Better organised and more efficient form of tsarist Okhrana – secret police
  • Purpose to destroy counter revolution and sabotage
  • Terms could be used for any form of dissent which Bolsheviks disapproved

Dissolution of Constituent Assembly November 1917

Lenin could not refuse to allow elections to the Constituent Assembly. However, the Socialist Revolutionaries won the election. The Bolsheviks came second, with majorities in Petrograd and Moscow. Unless the Bolsheviks took action, the Constituent Assembly would meet in January 1918 and deprive the Bolsheviks of their claim to represent the people.

Deputies were threatened with violence. Bolshevik deputies jeered and disrupted their speeches. When the Socialist Revolutionary majority refused to adopt the entire Bolshevik programme, Lenin walked out with the rest of the Bolshevik deputies. The assembly hall was shut and guarded. The deputies decided they would be safer at home in the provinces.

The Grady Hospital

Behold the cornerstone of one of the largest health systems in the world. Grady Health first opened the front doors of this building as The Grady Hospital on June 2nd, 1892 to serve the Atlanta public. It was the first of its kind in the city.

It sits on the corner of Jesse Hill Jr. and Coca-Cola Place, an old-school piece of architecture in the middle of a hospital campus that features (for the most part) building designs stacked together like different colored Legos.

Its towering old-world silhouette stands out in this modern environment. When you approach the three-story building, carved granite masterpieces emerge, framing the dark red brick, such as a remarkable “The Grady Hospital” frieze over the front entrance.

The Grady Hospital Opened in 1892 – It was the first public hospital in Atlanta – History Atlanta 2015

The popular story about the creation of Atlanta’s first public hospital relates how Henry Grady, the journalist, editor and newspaper owner promoted the building of a public hospital. It insinuates Grady was behind the creation of the hospital, which isn’t exactly true.

“It was built from a desire to benefit suffering humanity and an impulse of gratitude to do honor to Henry Grady’s memory, and it will do it,” said the Atlanta Constitution, when the hospital opened in 1892.

In the 1880’s many people promoted the idea of a public hospital in Atlanta. And this idea of a municipal hospital wasn’t original, for the general industry of care for the sick was moving towards these types of institutions. Grady and others were promoting a progressive concept.

Over the course of the entire 1800’s medical facilities were transformed from smaller institutions run by religious organizations designed to address specific problems (mostly helping an individual die) into large institutions financed by public funds dedicated to the recovery and healing of all classes.

While large hospitals in America were around from the 1700’s (Bellevue in New York was established in 1736, at first as a quarantine) it was the 1800’s that witnessed improved sanitation, use of statistics, professionalization of the medical field and other initiatives from individuals such as Florence Nightingale that shaped the modern doctors, nurses and massive hospitals we are familiar with today.

The Front Entrance to the Old Grady Hospital – History Atlanta 2015

By the late 1800’s publicly-funded centers of care could be found in most American cities. Open to the poor and destitute (that were residents of Atlanta), Grady was the first of this kind of public institution in Atlanta.

There were other hospitals and “medical facilities” in Atlanta before old Grady was built in 1892, just not public. They were scattered in and around the city, with different names and specific purposes, such as the Hospital of the Atlanta Circle of the King’s Daughters and Sons (for incurable diseases) and the Catholic-run Saint Joseph’s Infirmary (Atlanta’s first true hospital open to everyone, which was founded in 1880).

These facilities relied on religious organizations and benevolent contributions from rich folks to operate.

According to records of the time, the movement that built The Grady Hospital grew out of the dissolution of one of these “medical facilities” in 1881. It was called the Atlanta Benevolent Home, organized on January 30th, 1874 by Mrs. William Tuller. It was successful in the 1870’s in serving the poor of Atlanta, but a new board in 1881 decided to sell it for the “greater good” and create a municipal hospital.

Throughout the 1880’s the Home’s board wrestled with lawsuits that prevented them from selling the deed. The idea gained steam. Editorials in the Constitution called for a public hospital. Progressives in the city called for its creation. It was a hot subject.

The Grady Hospital in a Postcard – The Picture is from Before 1912 – Vanishing Georgia Georgia Archive

Henry Grady died in late December of 1889. In early 1890 the Atlanta Benevolent Home was finally sold and Atlanta City Councilman Joseph Hirsch introduced a resolution to establish a public hospital in Grady’s name. The City Council put up $30,000, which was combined with funds from other sources, such as those from the Benevolent Home. Hirsch was put in charge of raising additional cash.

By September 1890 four acres were purchased from Col. Lemuel P. Grant, the benefactor of Grant Park and the designer of the defenses of Atlanta during the Civil War.

Most records indicate the area was chosen because the Atlanta Medical College (now Emory) was a block south of the location. The College had been around since the mid 1850’s. But my research failed to indicate why it was placed near this medical college, as opposed to others in the area, such as the Southern Medical College (also now Emory).

Students from the Atlanta Medical College pose for a photograph in January 1895 in front of 34 Hilliard Street – Georgia Archives

Martin Moran, a retired doctor and author of Atlanta’s Living Legacy: A History of Grady Memorial Hospital & Its People, indicates the location was picked because it was on high ground, it was near the Atlanta Medical College and it was near one of Hurt’s trolley lines.

The architects were Gardner, Pyne and Gardner. The building was part of a large network of wards all connected by open-air corridors placed over the four acres purchased from Grant. Windows and porches were everywhere. This French “pavilion plan” for hospital design relied on air and ventilation to help reduce the mortality rate (Florence Nightingale loved this stuff).

The architects themselves called it Italianate, but others have since called it one of the only examples of the Richardson Romanesque Style in Atlanta. Which is it? That’s a good question for architecture nerds to dissect.

There was a large ceremony on December 23rd, 1890. The mayor gave a speech and then a Zouave band played as they put down the cornerstone. In May 1892 the building was dedicated. Then, on June 2nd, 1892, they formally opened and began accepting patients.

Old Grady Memorial Hospital in 1896 – It was on Butler Street which is now Jesse Hill Jr. Drive – Georgia State University Library

There was a steady stream of visitors that first day. The rules of admission by the hospital board were strict by today’s standards. The first “invalid” to apply was Henry Hughes who was turned away for not being an Atlanta resident and for having chronic diseases. Many others were turned away that first day for similar reasons.

There were four doctors, a matron (a wife of one of the doctors), 12 male and female nurses and 18 other employees, including cooks and engineers. Soon patients were being hauled in by a horse-drawn ambulance with rubber wheels. There was no tobacco or alcohol allowed in the hospital.

Horse-drawn Ambulance in 1896 Atlanta for Grady Hospital – Grady is in the background on the left – Georgia State University Libary

The Grady Hospital of 1892 had wards divided by sex and race patients that could pay for treatment were given their own private rooms. In total the hospital provided 110 beds and was a cutting edge facility.

There was an operating room bathed by natural light from huge windows with a section for students to observes doctors in action (they had to pay $5 to get in). The first-floor bow window on the north side marks the location of this original operating room.

As the hospital grew after 1900, and Jim Crow took hold, they divided blacks and whites further beyond just wards by creating/providing separate hospital structures.

I won’t get into the entire history of Grady Health, but by 1912 they had purchased the entire block. In that year they built a new hospital structure south of The Grady Hospital of 1892. The new building became known as Butler Hall (it has since been torn down).

The Grady Hospital on November 11th, 1952 – Barely Visible to the right is Butler Hall built in 1912 – Georgia State University Library

Butler Hall was for whites. They moved African Americans into the old Atlanta Medical College building, which is now demolished. This segregation continued for much of the hospital’s subsequent history, including a massive, and racially separate, 1,000-bed facility built in the mid-1950’s which became known as The Gradys.

During the last century The Grady Hospital building of 1892 became known as Georgia Hall. It was designated a Landmark Building on October 23rd, 1989. Both the bells in the tower and the operating room were removed during renovations and additions.

According to Grady spokesperson Denise Simpson, the interior is unrecognizable from the original design and layout. It’s more 1980’s office space than 1890’s medical facility. Simpson also indicates the tower in extremely hard to access. The building is occupied by Grady’s Human Resources department.

The Granite Frieze above the front Entrance – History Atlanta 2015

Did You Know? The building is three stories tall, but the tower is five stories tall.
Did You Know?
Grady purchased its first motorized ambulance from the White Motor Company in 1911.
Did You Know? Grady opened a Children’s Ward in 1897 for white children only.
Did You Know? At first Grady was controlled by a Board of Trustees and was funded by both the city of Atlanta and private donations. Today the counties that use Grady facilities throughout the metropolitan area all assume a portion of paying for Grady Health.
Did You Know?The first nursing school in Georgia, the Grady Hospital Training School for Nurses, was chartered on March 25th, 1898.

Wonderful Granite Details Surround the Rich Red Brick – History Atlanta 2015 Unidentified Nurse at Grady Unknown Date But Most Likely the Mid-1950’s – Georgia State University Library The Old Grady Hospital built in 1892 – History Atlanta 2015 The Building is Three Stories Tall But the Water Tower is Five Stories Tall – History Atlanta 2015 Medical students from the Atlanta Medical College in a snowball fight in January 1895 – Georgia Archives African American Man in Bandages at Grady on March 25th, 1948 – Georgia State University Library

PICTURES FROM HISTORY: Rare Images Of War, History , WW2, Nazi Germany

The following images are not merely of the Nazi brutality in the concentration camps, but the series of articles cover the excessive bestiality of the Germans in Russia when they occupied the country during WW2

German soldiers shoot Polish citizens at Brochnia on December 18, 1939


As an aside. The Russians were no less brutal. And not only towards the German soldiers. During the Battle for Moscow, Stalin had 8000 Russians killed for cowardice. The soldiers were told to hold their positions come what may. At minus 40 degree temperature. There were 'blocking detachments' in the Moscow front line. Their job? To shoot all deserters. Partisans in the countryside were given a free hand to kill anyone who was considered disloyal. The partisans misused these sweeping powers they had to exploit the common Russian people. Also in the fray were the partisans of other ethnic nationalities who exploited the people. In short, for a common Russian, life was hell.

A Soviet partisan hanged by the Germans. Photo found in the personal belongings of Hans Elman, a soldier of 10th company of 686th regiment of the German 294nd Infantry Division

Two Ukrainian SS men watch a pile of bodies of women and children who were killed during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

The Germans used the Lenin monument in Occupied Voronezh as gallows.

Gatchina in Russia. The Nazi Germans looted much of the Gatchina palace collections of art, while occupying the palace for almost three years. The Gatchina Palace and park was severely burnt, vandalized and destroyed by the retreating Germans. The extent of devastation was extraordinary, and initially was considered an irreparable damage.

October 1941. Kiev. Ukraine. Old women hurry past dead bodies of Russian POW. Eyewitnesses recall that while the prisoners were being driven on the streets of Kiev, the guards shot those who could not walk. The picture was taken 10 days after the fall of Kiev. German war photographer Johannes Hele, who served in 637th company of propaganda was part of the 6th German army that captured the capital of Ukraine.

After the work was done. 1941

The body of Russian heroine Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya who was brutally killed by the Germans

The Plymouth Thanksgiving of 1621 wasn't the first

Settlers in Berkeley Hundred in Virginia decided to celebrate their arrival with an annual Thanksgiving back in 1619, according to National Geographic — though The Washingtonian reported the meal was probably little more than some oysters and ham thrown together.

Decades before that, Spanish settlers and members of the Seloy tribe broke bread with salted pork, garbanzo beans, and a Mass in 1565 Florida, according to the National Parks Service.

Our modern definition of Thanksgiving revolves around eating turkey, but in past centuries it was more of an occasion for religious observance.

The storied 1621 Plymouth festivities live on in popular memory, but the Pilgrims themselves would have most likely considered their sober 1623 day of prayer the first true "Thanksgiving," according to the History of Massachusetts Blog.

Others pinpoint 1637 as the true origin of Thanksgiving, owing to the fact that the Massachusetts colony governor John Winthrop declared a day to celebrate colonial soldiers who had just slaughtered hundreds of Pequot men, women, and children in what is now Mystic, Connecticut.

Regardless, the popular telling of the initial harvest festival is what lived on, thanks to Abraham Lincoln.

The enduring holiday has also nearly erased from our collective memory what happened between the Wampanoag and the English a generation later.

The Camp Fire Destroyed 11,000 Homes. A Year Later Only 11 Have Been Rebuilt

The sun is setting at a construction site on "the ridge," as locals call it. Towering pine trees with their bark still black from wildfire are lit up in orange. And Chip Gorley and some buddies are about to crack open cans of IPA to celebrate some rare good news.

His foundation inspection passed, meaning they can start putting up the walls on Gorley's new home. It's on the exact site of where he lost everything in the Camp Fire a year ago.

"It's my home," Gorley says. "I'm coming back."


Water Uncertainty Frustrates Victims Of California's Worst Wildfire

Like most who survived the historic wildfire, Gorley remembers it all that terrifying morning — the exploding propane tanks, the snapping of burnt tree limbs, that moment he thought he might die during a chaotic evacuation. But for him at least, talking about it and being open as the anniversary approached has helped.

In Paradise, Calif., several memorials and commemorations were planned marking the anniversary through the weekend, including 85 seconds of silence at 11:08 a.m. on Nov. 8, for the 85 lives lost in the wildfire.

Despite the trauma, Gorley says he never doubted that his hometown would recover.

"It'll come back, it'll just be a slow grow," Gorley says. "As to when it will get back to where it's [even ] half the population, I don't know."

Many of Gorley's friends have moved out of state. There was already a housing shortage — especially an affordable housing shortage — in rural Butte County before the fire. In search of cheaper housing, survivors have moved to states like Oregon, Idaho and Texas. Or they just don't ever want to live in Paradise again because of all the horror they experienced that day.

The Safeway shopping center was burnt last November and remained a pile of debris until recently. Kirk Siegler/NPR hide caption

The Safeway shopping center was burnt last November and remained a pile of debris until recently.

Much of the debris has now been trucked away, though some businesses like this McDonald's in rubble are still grim reminders of last year's fire. Kirk Siegler/NPR hide caption

Much of the debris has now been trucked away, though some businesses like this McDonald's in rubble are still grim reminders of last year's fire.

At one point displacing close to 50,000 people, the Camp Fire was estimated to be the most expensive natural disaster in the world last year. Just removing the toxic debris cost almost $2 billion. The federal government is paying for about three quarters, including $200 million in direct aid to victims.

The Camp Fire, named for Camp Creek Road where it is believed to have started east of Paradise, was the single most destructive wildfire in California history and the worst in the United States in a century. Close to 19,000 structures burned. In Paradise, more than 11,000 houses burned to the ground. A year later, only 11 have been rebuilt. Eleven.

Paradise's Mayor Jody Jones plans to add to that tally though. Standing at her new home site, as her contractor and his crew hammer away in the background, Jones says those few who are rebuilding consider themselves pioneers.

"We never were victims, we're no longer survivors, we're pioneers," she says. "We're building a whole town from scratch, we're really proud of that."


Rethinking Disaster Recovery After A California Town Is Leveled By Wildfire

Jones says the town has passed some new, tougher building codes. That includes no more wood decks or fences and expanded setbacks between homes and flammable material. They're also looking to reconfigure some streets for better escape routes. Some people died while trying to evacuate in the gridlock.

But is all this enough? The Camp Fire continues to prompt some tough questions. Should towns like this built into dense overgrown dry forests where the homes themselves become ignition sources, be rebuilt in an era of climate change?

Jones is a little tired of the question. In her view, no one in Southern California seems to raise the question about rebuilding in high risk zones after fires like the recent Getty Fire in Los Angeles that forced thousands to evacuate.

"So what is the difference, is it because it's in L.A. and a metropolitan area and of course we should rebuild, but because we're a small town in the mountains we shouldn't," Jones asks.

Paradise is a shell of what it was. The population went from about 26,000 to an estimated 3,000 today.


Paradise Bobcats Football Team Gives California Town Hope After Fires

But there is progress here. Crews had to remove twice as much debris here as what was left from the twin towers after Sept. 11. Most of the toxic debris piles are now gone. So are the burnt cars that lined the roads giving it an apocalyptic feel. The demolished Safeway shopping center is finally cleared.

Tammy Waller is one of the rare people up here whose home survived the fire.

"The clean up has been way ahead of what I ever thought it would be," Waller says.

One of the first things Waller did when she moved back into her neighborhood in Magalia above Paradise was pack a go-bag with camping gear. It now sits next to her front door as a permanent fixture alongside her dog crates should she need to evacuate again.

Near her neighborhood one afternoon, she pointed up to power lines still mingling low among dense stands of trees and branches. Folks here recently had their power shut off for six days amid the bankrupt utility PG&E's new controversial safety plan.

Magalia resident Tammy Waller says it's unbelievable that even after the deadliest wildfire in California history was ignited by PG&E's faulty equipment, there are still power lines in her neighborhood perilously close to dense strands of trees and brush. Kirk Siegler/NPR hide caption

Magalia resident Tammy Waller says it's unbelievable that even after the deadliest wildfire in California history was ignited by PG&E's faulty equipment, there are still power lines in her neighborhood perilously close to dense strands of trees and brush.

Everyone's cable, Internet and cell phones went dark for the most part.

"If there were another fire, how would anybody know at say two o'clock in the morning," Waller says.

Nearby those lines, there's a mobile home with a layer of pine needles and duff several inches thick on its roof. There is also overgrown brush everywhere. The area still feels vulnerable. Yet Waller's not sure anything can really be done to prevent another fire on the scale and intensity as last year's.

"I know folks that had the cement siding, all of that, their house burnt to the ground," Waller says. "In that strong of a fire, there's nothing you're going to do about that."

Like a lot of Paradise area residents, Waller was drawn here by the beauty and quiet and the slower pace than her longtime home in the Los Angeles area. But now she's on the fence about staying here for the longterm.