Interesting

Battle of Amorgos, July 322 B.C.

Battle of Amorgos, July 322 B.C.



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Battle of Amorgos, July 322 B.C.

The battle of Amorgos saw the final defeat of Athenian naval power. After the death of Alexander the Great, the Athenians had seen a chance to win their independence, and had raised an army and a fleet (Lamian War). That fleet, under the command of a commander called Euetion, had been sent to the Hellespont in an attempt to prevent reinforcements reaching the Macedonians in Greece.

In the first few years after the death of Alexander, his generals kept alive the illusion of a united empire. In 322 Alexander’s military machine was still intact, and part of it now sprang into action. One of his generals, Craterus, sent one of his commanders, Cleitus, to take command of the Macedonian fleet. Cleitus then won a victory over the Greek fleet at Abydos, driving them away from the Hellespont, but not destroying the fleet. This victory allowed Macedonian reinforcements to reach Greece, but the existence of the Athenian fleet prevented Craterus from shipping a larger army across the Aegean.

By the summer of 322 B.C. the Athenian fleet had been reinforced, and now contained 200 ships. The two fleets came together again at Amorgos, sixty miles south west of Samos. Once again Cleitus was victorious, this time inflicting a crushing defeat. Athens’s last great war fleet had been destroyed.

With control of the sea lost, the Greek cause was doomed. The Macedonians were able to ship reinforcements to Greece, led by Craterus. The Greek army was defeated at Crannon, and faced by the prospect of a siege Athens surrendered.


Map Gettysburg Battlefield. Battle fought at Gettysburg, Pa. July 1st, 2d & 3d 1863 by the Federal and Confederate armies commanded respectively by Genl. G. G. Meade and Genl. Robert E. Lee. Gettysburg Battle-field

The maps in the Map Collections materials were either published prior to 1922, produced by the United States government, or both (see catalogue records that accompany each map for information regarding date of publication and source). The Library of Congress is providing access to these materials for educational and research purposes and is not aware of any U.S. copyright protection (see Title 17 of the United States Code) or any other restrictions in the Map Collection materials.

Note that the written permission of the copyright owners and/or other rights holders (such as publicity and/or privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use of protected items beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. Responsibility for making an independent legal assessment of an item and securing any necessary permissions ultimately rests with persons desiring to use the item.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.


Larger-Than-Life

The story of Alexander is told in terms of oracles, myths, and legends, including his taming of the wild horse Bucephalus, and Alexander's pragmatic approach to severing the Gordian Knot.

Alexander was and still is compared with Achilles, the Greek hero of the Trojan War. Both men chose a life that guaranteed immortal fame even at the cost of an early death. Unlike Achilles, who was subordinate to the great king Agamemnon, it was Alexander who was in charge, and it was his personality that kept his army on the march while holding together domains that were very diverse geographically and culturally.


The traction trebuchet is thought to have been developed in China around this time. Powered by teams of about a dozen people, it could sling balls of rock as far as 125 metres. Around the same time, the ancient Greeks develop their own siege weapon, the ballista, a kind of scaled-up crossbow.

The traction trebuchet was long considered to be folklore, until a working model was built in 1991 and shown to be effective. It was eventually replaced by the counterweight trebuchet, which is driven by a falling weight rather than manpower, in the Middle Ages.


Map Image 1 of Map of the battle field of Gettysburg. July 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 1863

The maps in the Map Collections materials were either published prior to 1922, produced by the United States government, or both (see catalogue records that accompany each map for information regarding date of publication and source). The Library of Congress is providing access to these materials for educational and research purposes and is not aware of any U.S. copyright protection (see Title 17 of the United States Code) or any other restrictions in the Map Collection materials.

Note that the written permission of the copyright owners and/or other rights holders (such as publicity and/or privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use of protected items beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. Responsibility for making an independent legal assessment of an item and securing any necessary permissions ultimately rests with persons desiring to use the item.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.


Battle of Amorgos, July 322 B.C. - History

C entered within a loose collection of city-states (often at war with one another), ancient Greek culture reached its pinnacle during the fourth century BC - an era described as its "Golden Age." Art, theater, music, poetry, philosophy, and political experiments such as democracy flourished. Greek influence stretched along the northern rim of the Mediterranean from the shores of Asia Minor to the Italian peninsula.

In Athens, society was male-dominated - only men could be citizens and only upper-class males enjoyed a formal education. Women had few political rights and were expected to remain in the home and bear children. Fully one quarter of the population was made up of slaves, usually prisoners captured during the many clashes that extended Greek influence overseas. These slaves provided much of the manpower that fueled the burgeoning economy, working in shipyards, quarries, mines, and as domestic servants.

Most homes were modest, windowless and wrapped around a courtyard. Furniture was rare. People spent the majority of the day out of doors enjoying the mild Mediterranean climate. The Greek diet was also modest, based largely on wine and bread. A typical day would start with bread dipped in wine, the same for lunch and a dinner of wine, fruits, vegetables and fish. Consumption of meat was reserved for special occasions such as religious holidays.

A Glimpse of the average day in Ancient Greece

Xenophon was a pupil of Socrates. Here, he describes the manner in which the ideal Greek aristocrat would pass the hours of a typical morning. Xenophon uses a literary device in which the story is supposed to be told by Socrates who is speaking with a friend by the name of Ischomachus. Socrates has asked his friend to describe how he spends his day. Ischomachus responds:

"Why, then, Socrates, my habit is to rise from bed betimes, when I may still expect to find at home this, that, or the other friend whom I may wish to see. Then, if anything has to be done in town, I set off to transact the business and make that my walk or if there is no business to transact in town, my serving boy leads on my horse to the farm I follow, and so make the country road my walk, which suits my purpose quite as well or better, Socrates, perhaps, than pacing up and down the colonnade [in the city]. Then when I have reached the farm, where mayhap some of my men are planting trees, or breaking fallow, sowing, or getting in the crops, I inspect their various labors with an eye to every detail, and whenever I can improve upon the present system, I introduce reform.

After this, usually I mount my horse and take a canter. I put him through his paces, suiting these, so far as possible, to those inevitable in war, - in other words, I avoid neither steep slope, nor sheer incline, neither trench nor runnel, only giving my uttermost heed the while so as not to lame my horse while exercising him. When that is over, the boy gives the horse a roll, and leads him homeward, taking at the same time from the country to town whatever we may chance to need. Meanwhile I am off for home, partly walking, partly running, and having reached home I take a bath and give myself a rub, - and then I breakfast, - a repast that leaves me neither hungry nor overfed, and will suffice me through the day."

References:
Davis, William Stearns, Readings In Ancient History (1912) Freeman, Charles, The Greek Achievement (1999).


Battle of Amorgos, July 322 B.C. - History

Ancient Greece : Famous Battles

Alexander & Macedonian Conquests 338 - 322 BC Philip II ruled Macedonia from 359 to 336 bc. During this time he battled and subdued the Greeks (the major victory was at Chaeroea in 338.) After his assassination in 336 bc his son Alexander at the age 20 became King of Macedonia. In 334 Alexander began his invasion of Persia in order to fulfill his father's plan to punish Persia for its dominance of Greece. Alexanders campaigns took him through Persia, Syria, Egypt, Afghanistan and finally India. In 323 he died while preparing a campaign to the Arabian peninsula.

Ancient Greek Warfare After the Dark Ages in ancient Greece, a new system of warfare evolved weaponry, tactics, ideas and formations changed. Modified by Philip II and mainly by Alexander the Great after the Macedonians conquered Greece, this new age of warfare lasted until the rise of the Roman Empire, when new tactics and the legion formation became the general methods of battle. The new "breakthrough" in military affairs was due largely to a new type of formation of infantry men, or hoplites. This formation was called the phalanx. The hoplite was heavily armed he was equipped with a round shield, a breastplate of metal and leather, a helmet, and metal shin protection called greaves. His two weapons were a double-bladed sword and an eight foot pike for thrusting. These men were much faster and more maneuverable then the old system of disorganized fighting, where heavily armed soldiers individually fought one-on-one with others (the leaders of opposing sides would search for the men with reputations to fight). The phalanx was held in solid ranks, and divided only by a center line and two flanking sections. The soldiers stood shoulder to shoulder in files about eight ranks deep. The men in the front line held their shield strapped to the left arm and the sword in their right hand, thus protecting the man on their left while being protected by the man on their right. [Greece] [Warfare]

Battle At Thermopylae Despite their defeat by the Athenians at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC, the Persians were not finished with their determination to conquer mainland Greece. For the Persians, Marathon barely registered the Persians after all controlled almost the entire world: Asia Minor, Lydia, Judah, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. The loss at Marathon was no more than an irritation to the Persians. Darius was unable to respond immediately to his defeat because of rebellions on the other end of his empire. While he was quelling these, he was killed in battle. King Xerxes, son of Darius, ascended to the throne of Persia after his father's death in 486 BC. After securing his throne, Xerxes began to muster forces to once again invade Greece. He was determined to avenge his father's defeat. By 480 BC, Xerxes had built up an enormous army of some one hundred fifty thousand men and a navy of six hundred ships. Peoples from many little-known nations in the vast empire of Xerxes joined in the army of the Great King to invade little Greece. [Famous Battles] [Ancient Greece]

Battle of Chaeronea Philip II defeated the allied force of Thebes and Athens. Fought August B.C. 338 between the Macedonians under Philip, and the Athenians and Thebans under Chares and Theagenes respectively. Philip had 30,000 foot and 2,000 horse, the latter led by Alexander, then a lad of eighteen the allies were slightly fewer in number. Philip reinforced his right wing, which was opposed by the Athenians, and sent his heavy cavalry against the Thebans, on the allied right. Their charge brokethe Theban ranks, and they then attacked the Athenians in flank and rear. A hopeless rout ensued, the Theban " Sacred Band " dying where they stood. The Athenians lost 6,000 killed and 2,000 prisoners. The Thebans were almost annihilated.

Battle of Gaugamela About 47,000 Macedonians led by Alexander defeated 120,000 Persians led by Darius. Fought October 31, 331 B. C., between 47,000 Macedonians under Alexander the Great, and the Persian army, three or four times as numerous, under Darius Codomannus. Alexander, who led the Macedonian right wing, forced a passage between the Persian left and centre, and attacked the centre on the flank. After a stubborn resistance, and though meanwhile the Macedonian left had been hard pressed, the Persians gave way, and Darius taking to flight, the whole army fled in confusion, and was routed with enormous loss, especially at the passage of the Lycas, which barred their retreat. This victory made Alexander master of Asia. [Al Mawsil, Iraq]

Battle of Granicus First major victory of Alexander over the Persians. Fought May, 334 B.C., between 35,000 Macedonians, under Alexander the Great, and 40,000 Persians and Greek mercenaries, under Memnon of Rhodes, and various Persian satraps. Alexander crossed the Granicus in the face of the Persian army, leading the way himself at the head of the heavy cavalry, and having dispersed the Persian light horse, he brought up the phalanx, which fell upon and routed the Greek mercenaries. The Persians lost heavily, while the Macedonians' loss was very slight.

Battle of Hydaspes Fought B.C. 326, between 65,000 Macedonians and 70,000 Asiatics, under Alexander the Great, and the army of the Indian king Porus, numbering 30,000 infantry, with 200 elephants and 300 war chariots. Alexander crossed the river- a few miles above Porus' entrenchments, and utterly routed him, with a loss of 12,000 killed and 9,000 prisoners, including Porus himself. The Macedonians lost 1,000 only. [India]

Battle of Issus Alexander defeated the Persian army with many times more men at the ancient city of Issus about 50 miles west of modern day Adana. While Darius, King of Persia, fled after the battle, Alexander captured Darius family. [Adana, Turkey] 333 B.C.

Battle of Megalopolis Fought B.C. 331, in the attempt of the Spartans, aided by the Arcadians, Achieans and Eleians, to shake off the Macedonian yoke, during Alexander's absence in Asia. The allies, under Agis, King of Sparta, were besieging Megalopolis, which had declined to join the league, when they were attacked by the Macedonians, under Antipater, and completely routed, Agis falling in the battle. [Megalopolis, Greece]

Battle of Plataea and Mycale In the spring of 479, the navy of 110 ships is at Egina. The Ionian Greeks are asking the Spartans and the navy to help them, but the Greeks are worried about sailing east of Delos, so they can't help the Ionian Greeks who have revolted. Next Mardonius consults the Greek oracles on his fortunes. Next he sends the Macedonian king Alexander to Athens to offer terms. From a military standpoint, they are quite fair, but the Athenians make it clear that they will never surrender to the Persians, which relieves the Spartan ambassadors. King Alexander leaves and the Spartans go home to begin to prepare for war. In Thessaly Mardonius isn't too impressed. He mobilizes and marches his army towards Athens. The Athenians evacuate, mostly to Salamis. The Persians enter a deserted Athens about July 5, 479. [Greek Wars and Military History]

Battle of Thebes This city was captured by the Macedonians, under Alexander the Great, in September, 335 B.C. The Thebans were blockading the Macedonian garrison, which held the citadel, and the Cadmea Perdiccas, one of Alexander's captains, without orders, broke through the earthworks outside the city. Before the Thebans could shut the gates, Perdiccas effected an entrance into the city, and being joined by the garrison of the Cadmea, soon overcame the resistance of the Thebans. Six thousand of the inhabitants were massacred, and the city was razed to the ground.

Siege of Gaza This city, defended by a Persian garrison, under Batis, was besieged by Alexander the Great October, 332 B. C. Utilizing the engines he had employed against Tyre, he succeeded, after some weeks, in breaching the walls, and, after three unsuccessful assaults, carried the city by storm, the garrison being put to the sword.

Siege of Tyre This strongly fortified city, built on an island separated from the mainland by a channel 1,000 yards wide, was besieged by the Macedonians under Alexander the Great, B.C., 332. Alexander at once commenced the construction of a mole across the channel but was much hampered by the Phoenician galleys, which issued from the two fortified harbours, and destroyed his military engines. He therefore collected in Sidon a fleet of 250 ships from the captured Phoenician cities, and holding the Tyrian galleys in check, completed his mole. It was some time, however, before a breach could be effected, but in August, 332, an assault was delivered, headed by Alexander in person, and the city was stormed and taken. Eight thousand Tyrians fell in the storm, and about 30,000 were sold into slavery.

The Battles of Salamis and Plataea King Xerxes, upon seeing his great defeat at Salamis, headed back to Persia with what was left of his navy and part of his army. [Famous Battles] [Ancient Greece]

Warfare in Ancient Greece As the economic resources of Greek city-states and individuals increased during the seventh century B.C., armies of foot soldiers were formed within the wealthier city-states. Known as hoplites, these soldiers were characteristically equipped with about seventy pounds of armor, most of which was made of bronze. The typical panoply included an eight- to ten-foot thrusting spear with an iron tip and butt, and bronze armor consisting of a helmet, cuirass (chest armor), greaves (shin guards), and a large shield about thirty inches in diameter. The heavy bronze shield, which was secured on the left arm and hand by a metal band on its inner rim, was the most important part of a hoplite's panoply, as it was his chief defense. [Military history of Greece and Rome]. [Met Museum]

Xerxes Plans To Conquer Greece King Xerxes` gathering of an army, and his march to conquer Greece. King Xerxes, son of Darius, ascended to the throne of Persia after his father's death in 486 BC. After securing the throne, Xerxes began to muster forces to invade Greece. By 480 BC, the army he assembled had approximately 100,000 to 180,000 men and a fleet of nearly 600 ships, quite a large army by Greek standards. This time, instead of an invasion by sea, this massive army would cross the Hellespont, and march around the Aegean sea and conquer Greece by land. An army this size would be too hard to ferry across the sea, anyway. Crossing the Hellespont proved to be troublesome to Xerxes and his army. They tried to cross the Hellespont with a bridge of boats, but alas, the sea became rough and the bridge broke apart. When King Xerxes heard of this, he was furious, and gave orders that the sea should receive 300 lashes with whips. The sea did calm down and the second attempt to build a bridge was successful. The Greeks heard of Xerxes' army amassing and were better prepared for the invasion than in the first Persian War. Athenians and Spartans combined with about 29 other city-states, under the leadership of Sparta to oppose this powerful army, and the Athenians contributed a fleet of 200 triremes for their navy. Themistocles, an Athenian general, urged the army to stop the invasion as far north as they could. Finally, a place was chosen for the first defence of Greece. This place was Thermopylae, a pass where it was only 60 feet wide! This is only wide enough so that a single chariot could fit though the pass. The Persian army arrived at Thermopylae and the Greeks were there waiting. This battle is known as The Battle at Thermopylae. [Famous Battles] [Ancient Greece]


Alexander's death

In the spring of 323 B.C.E. Alexander moved to Babylon and made plans to explore the Caspian Sea and Arabia and then to conquer northern Africa. On June 2 he fell ill, and he died eleven days later.

Alexander's empire had been a vast territory ruled by the king and his assistants. The empire fell apart at his death. The Greek culture that Alexander introduced in the East had barely developed. In time, however, the Persian and Greek cultures blended and prospered as a result of his rule.


The Second Intifada: Violence Continues

In September 2000, the Second Palestinian Intifada began. One of the triggers for the violence was when Ariel Sharon,ਊ right-wing, Jewish Israeli who would later become Israel’s prime minister, visited the Muslim holy site at the al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. Many Palestinians felt this was an offensive move, and they protested.

Riots, suicide bombings and other attacks subsequently broke out, putting an end to the once-promising peace process.

This period of violence between Palestinians and Israelis lasted nearly five years. Yasser Arafat died in November 2004, and by August of 2005, the Israeliਊrmy withdrew from Gaza.


Battle of Amorgos, July 322 B.C. - History

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held in the Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in our reading room, and not digitally available through the World Wide Web. See the Duplication Policy section for more information.

This collection was processed with support from the Randleigh Foundation Trust. Funding from the State Library of North Carolina supported the encoding of this finding aid.

Expand/collapse Collection Overview

Size 18.0 feet of linear shelf space (approximately 10,000 items)
Abstract The Battle Family Papers document the life of William Horn Battle (1802-1879) of Louisburg, Raleigh, and Chapel Hill, a white lawyer, legislator, judge, and trustee and professor of law at the University of North Carolina Kemp Plummer Battle (1831-1919) of Chapel Hill and Raleigh, a white lawyer, president of the Chatham Railroad, who was active in state affairs during the Civil War, served as state treasurer and as University of North Carolina president and professor of history and Kemp Plummer Battle's son, William James Battle (1870-1955), a white University of North Carolina and Harvard student, professor of classics, dean, and acting president, and professor of classics at the University of Texas and at the University of Cincinnati. The collection documents the family and many aspects of North Carolina history, including life on the Confederate homefront and social conditions during Reconstruction. There are also materials relating to the Episcopal Church, in which the Battles were active lay members, and some slave bills of sale and Chatham County Railroad items. Papers of Kemp Plummer Battle relate to his interest in the early history of North Carolina and of the University of North Carolina his notes from the secret sessions of the North Carolina convention of 1861 clippings, notes, and drafts of articles and speeches a facsimile of his journal, 1851-1853 and his correspondence and other papers of Battle family members, including his wife and children. Many letters are from Cornelia Phillips Spencer (1825-1908), whose brother Charles Phillips married Kemp Plummer Battle's aunt, Laura Caroline Battle. Papers of William James Battle document family and personal affairs. They are especially rich in Battle family history, but do not include many items relating to his professional career. Volumes are chiefly student notes and personal accounts kept by William James Battle, 1885-1909.
Creator Battle (Family : Battle, William H. (William Horn), 1802-1879)
Language English
Back to Top

Expand/collapse Information For Users

  • Reel 1: 1765-1850
  • Reel 2: 1851-1859
  • Reel 3: 1860-September 1865
  • Reel 4: October 1865-23 May 1871
  • Reel 5: 25 May 1871-1875

Expand/collapse Subject Headings

The following terms from Library of Congress Subject Headings suggest topics, persons, geography, etc. interspersed through the entire collection the terms do not usually represent discrete and easily identifiable portions of the collection--such as folders or items.

Clicking on a subject heading below will take you into the University Library's online catalog.

  • Battle family.
  • Battle, Kemp P. (Kemp Plummer), 1831-1919.
  • Battle, William H. (William Horn), 1802-1879.
  • Battle, William James, 1870-
  • Chapel Hill (N.C.)--Social life and customs.
  • Chatham Railroad Company (N.C.)--Officials and employees.
  • College students--Southern States--Social life and customs--19th century.
  • Confederate States of America--Social conditions.
  • Episcopal Church--North Carolina--History.
  • Family--North Carolina--Social life and customs.
  • Judges--North Carolina--History--19th century.
  • Lawyers--North Carolina--History.
  • Louisburg (N.C.)--History--19th century.
  • North Carolina--Genealogy.
  • North Carolina--History--Study and teaching.
  • North Carolina--Politics and government--1775-1865.
  • North Carolina--Politics and government--1865-1950.
  • North Carolina--Social conditions--Civil War, 1861-1865.
  • North Carolina. Convention (1861-1862)
  • Raleigh (N.C.)--History--19th century.
  • Reconstruction (U.S. history, 1865-1877)--North Carolina.
  • Schools--North Carolina--History--19th century.
  • Slave bills of sale--North Carolina.
  • Slavery--North Carolina.
  • Spencer, Cornelia Phillips, 1825-1908.
  • University of Texas--Faculty--History.
  • University of North Carolina (1793-1962)--History.

Expand/collapse Related Collections

  • Lewis Family Papers (#427)
  • Charles Phillips Papers (#2462)
  • Cornelia Phillips Spencer Papers (#683)
  • Kemp Plummer Lewis Papers (#3819)
  • Kemp Plummer Battle Papers (#1972)
  • Lucy Plummer Battle Papers (#4155)
  • Jane Hall Liddell Battle Papers (#2769)

Expand/collapse Biographical Information

William Horn Battle (1802-1879) lived near Louisburg, N.C., until late 1839, when he moved to Raleigh. In 1843, he moved to Chapel Hill and remained there until the closing of the University of North Carolina in 1868, when he went to Raleigh to live with his sons. Battle served as a Superior Court judge in 1840 and as a Supreme Court judge, 1852-1865. He was a Whig in politics and represented Franklin County in the House of Commons, 1833-1834. Battle was a professor of law at the University of North Carolina. The connection of the Law School with the University was nominal at the time, but Battle, as a prominent trustee, father of several University students, and close friend of University President David L. Swain, was quite active in University affairs.

Battle married Lucy Martin Plummer, daughter of a prominent family in Warren County, N.C. Their son, Kemp Plummer Battle, married his cousin, Martha Ann Battle (Pattie). Kemp Plummer Battle studied at the University of North Carolina, where he remained as a tutor for several years after graduation, studying law at the same time. When he secured his law license, he began to practice in Raleigh and soon thereafter married Pattie. They lived in Raleigh for 20 years. During this time, Kemp Plummer Battle practiced law and participated in public affairs as a member of the Convention of 1861 state treasurer, 1866-1868 and as an active member of the Whig Party before the Civil War, and, after the war, as a moderate conservative, and later Democrat. He was president of the Chatham Railroad and had interests in real estate ventures through the Southern Land Agency and Battle, Heck, and Company. Kemp Plummer Battle was active in the re-opening of the University of North Carolina. In 1876, he was elected president of the University and, in 1877, moved to Chapel Hill to begin work. He remained president until 1891, when he resigned to become professor of history, a post he held until his retirement in 1907.

William James Battle, youngest son of Kemp Plummer Battle, was born in Raleigh and lived in Chapel Hill after his father became president of the University of North Carolina. He was graduated from the University in 1888 and received his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Harvard University. In 1889-1890, he was an instructor of Latin at the University of North Carolina. In 1893, he taught briefly at the University of Chicago, then moved to the University of Texas, where he served until 1917 as associate professor and professor of Greek, dean of the College of Arts (and later of the faculty) and as acting president. In 1917, William James Battle joined the faculty of the University of Cincinnati, where he stayed until 1920 when he returned to Texas as professor of classical languages. He lived in Austin until his death in 1955. He was co-author of The Battle Book with Herbert B. Battle and Lois Yelverton.

Laura Caroline Battle Phillips (1824-1919) was the youngest child of Joel Battle and his wife Mary "Pretty Polly" Johnston Battle. Laura Battle was married to Professor Charles Phillips on 8 December 1847 at the Battle home in Chapel Hill, N.C. Their children included sons William and Alexander and daughters Mary and Lucy. Charles Phillips (1822-1889) was the son of James and Julia Vermeule Phillips of Chapel Hill, N.C. He was a graduate of the University of North Carolina, 1841 a tutor, 1844-1854 professor of mathematics, 1854-1868 and 1875-1879 and professor emeritus, 1879-1889. He taught at Davidson College, 1868-1874. Charles Phillips's sisiter, Cornelia Phillips (1825-1908), married James Munroe Spencer in 1855 and went with him to Alabama. At his death in 1861, she and her daughter Julia James "June" Spencer came back to Chapel Hill. During her last years, she lived in Cambridge, Mass., with her daughter and son-in-law, June and James Lee Love, and their children, Cornelia and James Spencer Love.

Below is a genealogical chart including most Battle family members who figure prominently in the papers. The children of James Smith Battle and Sallie Harriet Westray Battle and of Kemp Plummer and Susan Martin Plummer are not listed in chronological order by date of birth. Some Plummer family information is also included.

  • Elisha Battle + Elizabeth Sumner
  • Jacob Battle + Penelope Langley Edwards
  • James Smith Battle + ?
  • James Smith Battle + Sallie Harriet Westray
  • William Smith Battle + Mary Elizabeth Dancy
  • Turner Westray Battle + Lavinia Bassett Daniel
  • Mary Eliza Battle + William Francis Dancy
  • Mary Eliza Battle + Newsom Jones Pittman
  • Martha Ann Battle (1833-1913) + Kemp Plummer Battle
  • Penelope Bradford Battle + William Ruffin Cox
  • William Battle + Charity Horn
  • Joel Battle (1779-1829) + Mary Palmer (Polly) Johnston (1786-1866)
  • William Horn Battle (1802-1879) + Lucy Martin Plummer (1805-1874) (see Plummer family below)
  • Julian Plummer Battle (1826-1827)
  • Joel Dossey Battle (1828-1858) + Harriet Bunting
  • Susan Catharine Battle (1830-1867)
  • Kemp Plummer Battle (1831-1919) + Martha Ann (Pattie) Battle
  • Cornelia Viola Battle (1857-1886) + Richard H. (Richard Henry) Lewis (1850-1926)
  • Kemp Plummer Battle Jr. (1859-1922)
  • Thomas Hall Battle (1860-1936)
  • Herbert Bemerton Battle (1862-1929)
  • Susan Martin Battle (1864-1870)
  • Penelope Bradford Battle (1866-1868)
  • William James Battle (1870-1955)
  • William Horn Battle II (1833-1893) + Sophronia Ann (Sophie) Lindsay
  • Richard Henry Battle (1835-1912) + Annie Ruffin Ashe
  • Thomas Devereux Battle (1837-1838)
  • Mary Johnston Battle (1829-1865) + William Van Wyck II
  • Junius Cullen Battle (1841-1862)
  • Wesley Lewis Battle (1843-1863)
  • Amos Johnston Battle (1805-1870)
  • Richard Henry Battle (1807-1882)
  • Catherine Ann Battle + John Wesley Lewis
  • Benjamin Dossey Battle (1811-1857)
  • Christopher Columbus Battle (1814-1859)
  • Isaac Luther Battle (1816-1863)
  • Susan Esther Battle + William Henry McKee
  • Infant
  • Laura Caroline Battle + Charles Phillips
  • Kemp Plummer + Susan Martin
  • Henry Lyne Plummer + Sara D. Falkener
  • Mary Ann Plummer + Alfred Alston
  • Lucy Martin Plummer + William Horn Battle (see above)
  • William Plummer + Eliza Armistead
  • Austin Plummer
  • Kemp Plummer Jr.
  • Junius Plummer
  • Alfred Plummer + Frances Judith Love
  • Thomas D. Plummer + Asia H. Hunter
  • Ann Maria Plummer + William A. K. Falkener
  • Susan Jane Plummer (d. 1888) + Lucien Cabanne

For further information, see The Battle Book and Kemp Plummer Battle's Memories of an Old-Time Tar Heel .

Expand/collapse Scope and Content

Papers give detailed coverage of the life of William Horn Battle and his family and many aspects of North Carolina history, including life on the homefront in the Confederate States of America during the Civil War and social conditions during Reconstruction. There are also materials relating to the Episcopal Church, in which the Battles were active lay members, and some slave bills of sale and Chatham County Railroad items. Papers of Kemp Plummer Battle relate to his interest in the early history of North Carolina and of the University of North Carolina. Papers of William James Battle document family and personal affairs. They are especially rich in Battle family history, but do not include many items relating to his professional career. Volumes are chiefly student notes and personal accounts kept by William James Battle, 1885-1909.

Series 1 and Series 2 are currently maintained as separate accessions based on restrictions that, at one time, covered materials in Series 2. Series 1 consists of papers focusing primarily on William Horn Battle and his son, Kemp Plummer Battle. Series 2 contains papers of William James Battle, son of Kemp Plummer Battle, that were restricted until 15 years after his death. Because both series include material for 1875-1919, researchers interested in this time period should consult both series for items of potential interest.

The addition of April 2005 contains correspondence and other papers of Battle family members, mostly Kemp Plummer Battle (1831-1919), but also his wife Martha Ann (Pattie) Battle (d. 1913), and their children, Cornelia Viola Battle Lewis (1857-1886), Kemp Plummer Battle Jr. (1859-1922), Thomas Hall Battle (1860-1936), and Herbert Bemerton Battle (1862-1929). Kemp Plummer Battle's other children appear less frequently in the correspondence. Many letters are from Cornelia Phillips Spencer (1825-1908), whose brother Charles Phillips married Kemp Plummer Battle's aunt, Laura Caroline Battle. Professional papers of Kemp Plummer Battle include his notes from the secret sessions of the North Carolina convention of 1861, notes and drafts of articles and speeches by Kemp Plummer Battle, clippings of articles by or about Kemp Plummer Battle, and a few other items.


Watch the video: Amorgus (August 2022).