29 September 1940

29 September 1940

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29 September 1940

September 1940

> October

War in the Air

Luftwaffe carries out widespread night raids over Britain, causing serious fires in London and on Merseyside

RAF attacks targets in north west Germany

London Blitz — 29th December 1940

Seventy years ago, the Germans started the Blitz more or less out of frustration, without clear planning, as a sequel to the Battle of Britain. During the first half of the summer of 1940, the Luftwaffe focused on dominating British airspace, in preparation for a possible landing, and its bombardments were limited to airfields and other military installations. On 24th August, more or less by accident, a pair of Stukas dropped the first bombs on central London. Churchill seized the opportunity, and in ‘revenge’, 80 RAF bombers pounded Berlin. Hitler was infuriated. Nearly 600 German bombers came back during the next two weeks to bomb English cities, factories and airfields.

Then, at 5 p.m. on 7th September, the first major attack on London began. On that sunny afternoon, 348 Luftwaffe bombers crossed the English Channel, and for the next two hours ignited the city with incendiary bombs, the docks being their primary target. That same evening, the Germans were back, raining 625 tons of high explosives on working class neighborhoods in the East End. The Blitz went on for 57 consecutive nights and then spread to other cities in the U.K. In ‘Second Great Fire of London’ on the night of 29th December 1940, nineteen churches, thirty-one guild halls and all of Paternoster Row, including five million books went up in flames.

By the time the Blitz ended (as Luftwaffe diverted its planes east for the attacks on the Soviets) on May 16th 1941, more than 43,000 people had died in the strategic air raids. Writer Harold Nicolson compared himself to a prisoner in the Conciergerie during the French Revolution: “Every morning one is pleased to see one’s friends appearing again.” Yet, the English, being the English, just got on with it stoically. In stubborn, indignant fashion, the life went on. A survey taken during this period found that weather had a greater impact than air raids on the day-to-day worries of many Londoners. In his magisterial history The Blitz: The British Under Attack, Julian Gardiner observes, “egg rationing produced more emotion than the blitz.”

Thus predictably, most well-known of the countless photos taken during the Blitz did not depict carnage and chaos, but rather an extraordinary tale of survival and defiance. The above photograph featured on the front page of the Daily Mail, captioned as ‘War’s Greatest Picture’, was taken from the roof of the same newspaper’s Tudor Street offices by Herbert Mason two nights before (on 29th December). St. Paul’s Cathedral was surrounded not only by fires and smoke that fateful night, but an incendiary bomb did drop inside the Stone Gallery. During the Blitz, the importance of the Cathedral was so much so that Churchill insisted that if the church were to be bombed, all fire-fighting resources be directed there, and that “At all costs, St Paul’s must be saved.” The Daily Mail echoed this sentiment in the text accompanying the photo that the image is “one that all Britain will cherish – for it symbolises the steadiness of London’s stand against the enemy: the firmness of Right against Wrong”. To that effect, the editors at the Mail decided to crop the photograph quite liberally, to take out the gutted remains of houses in the foreground.

Interestingly, but not surprisingly, the photo was telling quite a different story on the continent within days. The Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung announced that “Die City von London brennt!”, and gleefully informed its readers that the conflict with England too was approaching its endgame. For Germans, the photo, with the blazing foreground ruins included, depicted nothing more than the centre of “britischen Hochfinanz” burning in London’s biggest blaze since “Jahre 1666”. Photographs never lie indeed.

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Lieutenant John F. Kennedy

In October 1941, John F. Kennedy was appointed an ensign in the United States Naval Reserve, joining the staff of the Office of Naval Intelligence. After entering the Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Training Center in Melville, Rhode Island, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant (junior grade) in October 1942, and shortly thereafter ordered to report for duty as commanding officer of a motor torpedo boat in Panama. Prior to his departure, playwright Clare Boothe Luce, a close friend of the Kennedy family, sent the young naval officer a good luck coin that once belonged to her mother. On September 29, 1942, Kennedy wrote to Luce thanking her for sharing such an important token with him.

[John F. Kennedy, head-and-shoulders portrait,…] [between 1960-1970]. Prints & Photographs Division

I came home yesterday and Dad gave me your letter with the gold coin. The coin is now fastened to my identification tag and will be there, I hope, for the duration. I couldn’t have been more pleased. Good luck is a commodity in rather large demand these days and I feel you have given me a particularly potent bit of it.

Kennedy transferred to the Pacific theater in February 1943 and became commanding officer of PT109 in April, operating against the Japanese near the island of New Georgia in the Solomon Islands. On the night of August 1-2, Kennedy’s boat was rammed and cut in two by a Japanese destroyer. Although he was injured during the attack, Kennedy managed to locate one of his injured crew and lead him to safety most of his crew survived. He later received the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for his heroism.

A few months later, Kennedy again wrote to Luce. With his note, he enclosed a gadget, originally intended to be a letter opener, made “from a Jap 51 cal. bullet and the steel from a fitting on my boat, part of which drifted onto an island.” He concluded his message with a word of thanks for Luce’s earlier gift:

With it goes my sincere thanks for your good-luck piece, which did service above and beyond its routine duties during a rather busy period.

John F. Kennedy to Clare Boothe Luce, October 20, 1943. Clare Boothe Luce Papers (correspondence, box 116). Manuscript Division

No stranger to the front line herself, Luce covered World War II as a journalist. She published Europe in the Spring, an anti-isolationist account of her experiences in embattled Europe, in 1940—in the early days of World War II.

Portrait of Clare Boothe Luce. Carl Van Vechten, photographer, Dec. 9, 1932. Van Vechten Collection. Prints & Photographs Division

More than 1500 fires were started

The catchphrase, ‘The Second Great Fire of London’ came from an American reporter who telegraphed his office with the news. Firefighters and volunteers struggled to contain the flames as well as hundreds of unexploded bombs from the previous 113 nights of the blitz.

Miraculously the fires were mostly extinguished by 4 am the next morning, but some burned for days. London felt the effects of the bombing well into the next year as it recovered from the destruction.

Bomb damage in London

Bexhill bombs September 1940

Hello, my name is Eve and I am going to give you some recollections of the Second World War, especially about the bombs that fell on Bexhill on 29th September 1940. I will also tell you about my working life in Bexhill before and during the War. Bexhill-on-Sea is a town on the Sussex coast. When I gave my story, in 2005, I was 86 years of age. I told my story to Andrew Voyce, an Open University graduate, who has transcribed my words.

(There were many changes after the war.) Before the war, you had to pay if you wanted an ambulance to call for an emergency. We were in the Equitable and another thing. It was all- pay for everything. I don’t know how my Mum brought us up, she was left a widow when I was twelve. I do not know how she brought us up, really. Three of us. The Equitable covered a lot of expenses with hospital. I don’t know if they’re still going now. Perhaps doing something different now. Times were very hard, and we didn’t have a lot. But we did appreciate what we saved for. They have all these things, my mind boggles at what they’ve got today. If we wanted something, you saved for it. If it wasn’t in your purse you didn’t have it. But I can’t say there was the tension then. We were very hard up, because we didn’t have other things, then, did we? We never had a radio until my brother went out to work. He was friendly with the bloke who ran the shop here. A shilling a week, we had the radio.

I went into service, and I went daily as a fourteen-year-old . I worked long hours, half a crown a week. They were training me. I didn’t do much with half a crown a week. Mr Page paid One Pound Ten in old money. It was hardly worth our shoe leather walking there. Then we started a union- that caused some ruckuses. He had little chats with us: How could we do it to him? Oh, my Gosh. He was a proper old…he was never… should have been in charge of a big thing like that, but that was Government order, you see! The government encouraged unions. I expect he got something for having them. For each person he got there, I don’t know. But, I don’t know all the political details. (Mr Page was a bit of an old-fashioned type- oh yes!) Poor man. And of course when it got that more women came, and their husbands walked in the garage, they just went. But the Government order was to keep the machines going. And if someone stopped, the foreman stopped them going, and the foremen went in the office. The foremen said to me, ‘I went in the office for some other reason.’ Well, he said it was to help interview some other person or something. And he said to me: You know, women come in here and cry, I can’t say no. So he said: If I give you an extra three shillings a week, will you be a go-between? So he made me an unofficial forewoman, if you like. Well, I wasn’t a forewoman, really, but I had to go and speak on their behalf. Which, I didn’t care- it didn’t worry me. Well I had three shillings extra for that. Ha! Laugh, Oh I laugh about it now when I think about it!

I never smoked. All my family smoked, why because it was a fashion. All my three children smoked. And my husband. But I, I never did. They tried to get me on it, on nights, because you know it’s damned difficult to keep awake at nights, with the turning of the machines. They’d say: Come on, Eve, have a cigarette. I used to take it, take two puffs, put it somewhere and find it’d burned itself out. My daughter said, You never inhaled, Mum. I says, I don’t know what you mean by inhaling, ‘cos I don’t know anything about it anyway. My husband was in the war, he was only nineteen. He got a cigarette ration, in a tin. I never saw it, but that’s what he said. They were in the desert for four and a half years. He was in the Eighth Army in North Africa. We got married before he went, it was his idea. Well only ‘cos he wanted to. I said it’s a waste of time getting married when he was going away. Yes, we got married the end of ’40. And that was put off because of the invasion standby. We should have got married in the September but everything came to a dead halt. Nobody moved anywhere. Then he came home in the middle of the night. We’d had a DREADFUL day in Bexhill! Oh! We lost three people in Devonshire Road. They bombed most of, well half of Devonshire Road. We lost the Maypole, a dairy, we lost Flynn’s the dry cleaners, two people were killed in the dry cleaners. My sister worked across the road in what is Gamleys now, it was Barkers, and all the glass in the shop, it cut them. And it happened at quarter past eight in the morning. A very bad time. I was working at a hotel near the Clock Tower. It was called the Arundel, then. It goes that way, down to the museum. I’d just come out the dining room, cos I went there as a parlour maid, because the people I worked for as a cook went down to the West Country. I could’ve gone with them, but I didn’t want to. She was very annoyed with me ‘cos I wouldn’t go. Anyway, I’d just come out of the dining room and we had the maid’s door, you see, there’s the maid’s door. We had this HUGE kitchen, the woman had, with about four great big AGA cookers. It was huge hotel. She owned the hotel and she did the cooking- well her mother owned the hotel- not as big as some in Bexhill, but it was biggish. But what they had were live-in clients as well as people coming on holiday. All we’d got were the doctors, as they’d sent their wives away. And they were living in our place, the doctors, and carrying on their duties. One of them always had porridge in the morning. Anyway, I came out of the dining room, and…I didn’t hear anything. By this baize door came, and knocked everything out of my hand. There was me with the tray, you know, and CRASH! You never heard such a noise in all your life. We WERE close to it. Where the hotel was, that’s the Arundel, there was a whole row of houses up to the end of Sackville Road, between us, all up Egerton Road. And what they bombed was outside what was the Metropole Hotel. It’s not there now, but, they bombed outside of it, it went that way, like the putting course goes (now), used to be the hotel. It was a glamorous hotel, you’d have furs and all that. And it had a lovely front. Evidently, there was all the mains, for the water, and the gas, and everything. I didn’t see it cos I was in the hotel, but as I went, collecting myself, through there, the lady who owned the place, was hanging onto the cookers, and she said: I can’t go and look, she said, I think the back of the hotel’s gone. So I crawls through the kitchen, out to where there were big sinks for washing up. Nothing in our place was gone. The only thing that happened was: we had old fashioned chimneys, and fireplaces, and EVERY ROOM in the hotel had soot over it. We spent the rest of the day mopping up this soot. Anyway I was allowed to go home in the afternoon, ‘course when I got home I realised what had happened to Devonshire Road. The delivery people came in and said- it’s an awful day for Bexhill. But didn’t give any details. That was the 29th of September 1940. Towards the end of the Battle of Britain, We didn’t get it as bad as people in London. But ours was all, what can I say…’wanting to get rid of his bombs’ business. On their way back. And it was always early. He did no end of damage, all down the end of Amherst Road. He must have dropped the whole load on Bexhill, I reckon. That’s what he did to our end of the town. So that was on a Monday, I know that.

Then I worked to half past nine at night, I tell you. I had to be there at seven, I was living at home, but I had to be there at seven, so I had to be up at six to be down from near the hospital to be on duty by seven, and I had a break in the afternoon and left at half past nine. I got a pound a week. One pound. And when I’ve told my kids : Mum, what d’you mean a pound? D’you know I was glad of that job, because the people I worked for had cleared off, and I lived in with that job where I was cook. Well they cleared off and I went home, ‘cos I got Mum, lived near the hospital. And I couldn’t live off her and not pay her, could I? So I answered this advertisement and it was at that hotel. I was there, I suppose, seven or eight months. I’ve lost count really. In the following March I got the call from the Ministry of Labour. Yes, March of ’41. I went down to see Mr Page, and took the green card with me, and he took us on he took me and two other ladies on. We started on the Monday. After the war had finished, the men never came home till ’46. They had to be demobbed in their age group. Although they went up early- I mean he was only 19, when he came back I was twenty-eight. And I was twenty-one when I got married. It took all…I’ve always said we gave the best years of our lives to this country. He came home, I suppose I was twenty-seven, I had my first child when I was twenty-eight. I carried on with Mr Page till a bit after the end of the war. I worked for Mr Page from August ’41 to August ’45. ‘Cos he came home on leave, they moved them from the desert all up through Italy. Then from Italy they went to Greece, that was doing a sort of, like they did in Northern Ireland. Because they were at war with each other out there. Then they realised that the men weren’t going to be demobbed till the following year, so they flew them home for 28 days leave. God, that was awful going back after 28 days leave then. But for the men it must have been agony. They’d still got to be there till the next year. They came home in the April. Actually my brother was in the same- well not actually with him- in the desert. Do you know, he was only seventeen and a half, he was in the Territorials. My husband was six months younger than me, we were the same age at a certain time of the year. He was what I’d call a- well how can I describe him?- they were thoroughly good men, because they hadn’t had anything to be otherwise, had they? They didn’t do anything. They hadn’t been out of Bexhill so they didn’t know the world, did they…But he was a bit of a joker. Do you know, it completely changed him. Serious- they had the stuffing knocked out of them. Now my brother visits me once a week. He nowadays says more about the war than in the years in between. Funny, isn’t it? When anniversaries come up, he speaks about it. But there you go.

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Play by Play Table Inn Score Out RoB Pit(cnt) R/O @Bat Batter Pitcher wWPA wWE Play Description Top of the 1st, Dodgers Batting, Tied 0-0, Phillies' Johnny Podgajny facing 1-2-3 t10-00---OBROCharlie GilbertJohnny Podgajny-2%48%Groundout: 2B-1B t10-01---OBROPete CoscarartJohnny Podgajny-1%46%Flyball: 2B t10-02---OBROPete ReiserJohnny Podgajny-1%45%Groundout: P-1B 0 runs, 0 hits, 0 errors, 0 LOB. Dodgers 0, Phillies 0. Bottom of the 1st, Phillies Batting, Tied 0-0, Dodgers' Lee Grissom facing 1-2-3 b10-00---OPHIHal MarnieLee Grissom2%48%Groundout: 3B-1B b10-01---OPHIArt MahanLee Grissom1%49%Groundout: SS-1B b10-02---OPHINeb StewartLee Grissom1%50%Strikeout 0 runs, 0 hits, 0 errors, 0 LOB. Dodgers 0, Phillies 0. Top of the 2nd, Dodgers Batting, Tied 0-0, Phillies' Johnny Podgajny facing 4-5-6 t20-00---OBRODolph CamilliJohnny Podgajny-2%48%Foul Popfly: 3B t20-01--- BROJoe VosmikJohnny Podgajny3%50%Single to CF t20-011--OOBRODon RossJohnny Podgajny-5%45%Double Play: Flyball: 2B-1B 0 runs, 1 hit, 0 errors, 0 LOB. Dodgers 0, Phillies 0. Bottom of the 2nd, Phillies Batting, Tied 0-0, Dodgers' Lee Grissom facing 4-5-6 b20-00---OPHIJohnny RizzoLee Grissom2%47%Strikeout b20-01---OPHIJoe MartyLee Grissom2%49%Flyball: CF b20-02--- PHIBennie WarrenLee Grissom-1%48%Walk b20-021-- PHIPinky MayLee Grissom-2%46%Walk Warren to 2B b20-0212-OPHIBobby BraganLee Grissom4%50%Flyball: LF 0 runs, 0 hits, 0 errors, 2 LOB. Dodgers 0, Phillies 0. Top of the 3rd, Dodgers Batting, Tied 0-0, Phillies' Johnny Podgajny facing 7-8-9 t30-00---OBROHerman FranksJohnny Podgajny-2%48%Flyball: CF t30-01---OBROJohnny HudsonJohnny Podgajny-2%46%Groundout: SS-1B t30-02--- BROLee GrissomJohnny Podgajny1%47%Single to CF t30-021--OBROCharlie GilbertJohnny Podgajny-3%45%Flyball: SS 0 runs, 1 hit, 0 errors, 1 LOB. Dodgers 0, Phillies 0. Bottom of the 3rd, Phillies Batting, Tied 0-0, Dodgers' Lee Grissom facing 9-1-2 b30-00--- PHIJohnny PodgajnyLee Grissom0%45%E2 on Foul Ball b30-00---OPHIJohnny PodgajnyLee Grissom2%47%Strikeout Looking b30-01--- PHIHal MarnieLee Grissom-3%44%Walk b30-011--OPHIArt MahanLee Grissom3%47%Flyball: RF b30-021--OPHINeb StewartLee Grissom3%50%Strikeout 0 runs, 0 hits, 1 error, 1 LOB. Dodgers 0, Phillies 0. Top of the 4th, Dodgers Batting, Tied 0-0, Phillies' Johnny Podgajny facing 2-3-4 t40-00--- BROPete CoscarartJohnny Podgajny4%54%Single to CF t40-001--RBROPete ReiserJohnny Podgajny15%70%Double to LF Coscarart Scores

On October 29, 1855, recent German immigrant Carl Schurz wrote his wife, Margarethe Meyer Schurz, expressing hope for their future happiness. A political refugee from the tumultuous revolutions of 1848 External , Schurz soon gravitated toward political life in the United States. Exactly five years later, Schurz corresponded with his wife from Lincoln’s presidential campaign trail.

The sun has risen bright and clear, and the view spread out before me presents so cheerful and sweet a picture that I am distinctly encouraged to hope we shall be very happy here.

Carl Schurz to Margarethe Meyer Schurz, October 29,1855. In Intimate Letters of Carl Schurz, 1841-1869. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1928. Pioneering the Upper Midwest: Books from Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, ca. 1820 to 1910 General Collections Rare Book & Special Collections Division

Although Schurz initially supported William H. Seward for the Republican nomination, he welcomed the prospect of a Lincoln presidency and assured the nominee that

. . . I shall carry into this struggle all the zeal and ardor and enthusiasm of which my nature is capable. The same disinterested motives that led me and my friends to support Gov. Seward in the Convention,
will animate and urge us on in our work for you, and wherever my voice is heard and my influence
extends you may count upon hosts of true and devoted friends.

Carl Schurz to Abraham Lincoln, Tuesday, May 22, 1860 (Congratulations). Series 1. General Correspondence 1833-1916. Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress. Manuscript Division

Schurz’s efforts on behalf of Lincoln and his commitment to the nascent Republican Party resulted in his appointment as envoy to Spain. A year later, Schurz returned to America to serve as a brigadier general in the Union Army during the Civil War.

After the war’s conclusion and Lincoln’s assassination, Schurz toured the South on behalf of President Andrew Johnson. In his report to Johnson, the former abolitionist urged extension of the franchise to freedmen as a condition for the South’s readmission to the Union. Johnson ignored his recommendations.

After a stint as a journalist, Schurz served as a U.S. senator from Missouri from 1869 to 1875. Over the course of his term, dissatisfaction with the corruption of the Grant administration and disappointment with its Reconstruction policies led Schurz to take an active role in the short-lived reformist Liberal Republican Party. By 1876, however, he was back in the traditional Republican fold advocating the election of Rutherford B. Hayes, who he believed would restore integrity to government.

My country, right or wrong if right, to be kept right and if wrong, to be set right.

Carl Schurz, speech in the Senate, February 29, 1872. In Congressional Globe. Senate, 42nd Congress, 2nd Session. A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774 – 1875. Law Library

As secretary of the interior under Hayes, Schurz had lasting impact on the American environment. For the first time, the Department of the Interior addressed conservation issues. During Schurz’s tenure, the U.S. Geological Survey was officially established as a bureau within the department. Schurz himself urged the creation of forest reserves and a federal forest service. Although these recommendations were not enacted until 1891 and 1905, respectively, Schurz’s administration is considered a turning point in the history of government participation in the American conservation movement.

First Official Investigation of Indian Grievances, Visit of Secretary Schurz to the Spotted Tail Indian Agency External . In Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, Oct 4, 1879. p.69. Denver Public Library Digital Collections External

After leaving government in 1881, Schurz returned to journalism. As an editor for national publications including The Nation and Harper’s Weekly, he continued to influence U.S. opinion and policy and was recognized as perhaps the leading spokesman for German Americans. Never one to place party loyalty before principle, he urged reformist Republicans to vote for Democrat Grover Cleveland in 1884.

Continuing his early advocacy of clean government, Schurz headed the National Civil Service Reform League from 1892 to 1901. Though his anti-imperialism placed him strongly at odds with President Theodore Roosevelt, he lived to see the latter create the Forest Service in 1905 and vigorously expand the conservation policies he himself had advocated. Carl Schurz died the following year at age seventy-seven.

Baseball History on September 29

Baseball Births on September 29 / Baseball Deaths on September 29

Players Born on, Died on, Debut on, Finished on September 29

Baseball history on September 29 includes a total of 60 Major League baseball players born that day of the year, 18 Major League baseball players who died on that date, 71 baseball players who made their Major League debut on that date, and 614 Major League baseball players who appeared in their final game that date.

Bill James, on the same page of the same book we used at the top of this page, said, "But as I began to do research on the history of baseball (in order to discuss the players more intelligently) I began to feel that there was a history a baseball that had not been written at that time, a history of good and ordinary players, a history of being a fan, a history of games that meant something at the time but mean nothing now." To that end, I have created Baseball Almanac. A site to worship baseball. A site by a fan who is trying to tell the history of good and ordinary baseball players.

September 29th, 1943 is a Wednesday. It is the 272nd day of the year, and in the 39th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 3rd quarter of the year. There are 30 days in this month. 1943 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 9/29/1943, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 29/9/1943.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.

Watch the video: Battle of Britain. 15th September, 1940, The Most Challenging Day. Full Documentary. Full HD. (June 2022).


  1. Wamocha

    Congratulations, great idea and timely

  2. Sisyphus

    I can not remember.

  3. Lojza

    Fair thinking

  4. Nikotaxe

    and you can periphrase it?

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