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30 July 1944

30 July 1944


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30 July 1944

War at Sea

German submarine U-250 sunk in the Koivisto Strait (Baltic)

Western Front

1st Army reaches Avranches

2nd Army offensive is renewed

Eastern Front

Soviet troops capture bridgeheads across the Vistula River

New Guinea

US troops land on the Volgelkop Peninsula



The Men Who Planned the July Plot

Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini inspect the meeting room in the guest house that was destroyed during the assassination attempt against Hitler on July 20, 1944.

ullstein bild/Getty Images

Many of the July plot’s participants were, like Stauffenberg, high-ranking military officers of aristocratic descent. “They were often the traditional elite, the best educated, with foreign connections, and with a sense of obligation to the idea of Germany,” says Roger Moorhouse, an historian who has written several books on Nazi Germany, including Killing Hitler: The Third Reich and the Plots Against the Führer. He adds that the aristocracy tended to view the Nazis “with distaste, not least on class grounds.”

Some of the main plotters, as Moorhouse points out, were “principled opponents of the Nazis from the outset.” Henning von Tresckow, for instance, privately disavowed the regime as early as 1935, following the passage of the Nuremberg race laws.

Then, in July 1941, Tresckow learned of the mass killing of Jews. At that moment, Hoffmann explains, he dedicated himself to deposing Hitler, forming a cell that initiated several assassination attempts, culminating in Operation Valkyrie. “It was a question of personal honor,” Hoffmann says, 𠇊nd the need to prove to the world that there were Germans who had tried for years to bring the killing and destruction to an end.”

Stauffenberg likewise came to view Hitler as a monster. Yet he was among those who joined the resistance late, having apparently been seduced by the initial successes of the Nazi war machine. During the 1939 invasion of Poland, he wrote that the “inhabitants are an unbelievable rabble” who would surely only be 𠇌omfortable under the knout,” and that “the thousands of prisoners-of-war will be good for our agriculture.” In a tacit sign of support for the regime, he even wed in a steel military helmet and honeymooned in Fascist Italy.

A few of the plotters committed horrific war crimes. Wolf-Heinrich von Helldorf, Berlin’s police chief, was notorious for harassing and extorting Jews Arthur Nebe commanded a mobile death squad that murdered tens of thousands of Jews in territory conquered from the Soviet Union and Georg Thomas was a driving force behind the so-called Hunger Plan, which aimed to starve to death millions of Soviet civilians.

Eduard Wagner, who provided Stauffenberg with a plane for the July 20, 1944, assassination attempt, was perhaps worst of all. Christian Gerlach, a professor of modern history at the University of Bern in Switzerland, who writes about the Holocaust, describes him as 𠇊 leading mass murderer,” responsible for 𠇊ll sorts of atrocities,” including the “ghettoization of Jews” and the starvation of Soviet prisoners. Wagner moreover advocated for the siege of Leningrad, Gerlach says, “in which at least 600,000 civilians died, mainly of hunger and cold.”


American bombers deluge Budapest, in more ways than one

On July 2, 1944, as part of the British and American strategy to lay mines in the Danube River by dropping them from the air, American aircraft also drop bombs and leaflets on German-occupied Budapest.

Hungarian oil refineries and storage tanks, important to the German war machine, were destroyed by the American air raid. Along with this fire from the sky, leaflets threatening “punishment” for those responsible for the deportation of Hungarian Jews to the gas chambers at Auschwitz were also dropped on Budapest. The U.S. government wanted the SS and Hitler to know it was watching. Admiral Miklas Horthy, regent and virtual dictator of Hungary, vehemently anticommunist and afraid of Russian domination, had aligned his country with Hitler, despite the fact that he little admired him. But he, too, demanded that the deportations cease, especially since special pleas had begun pouring in from around the world upon the testimonies of four escaped Auschwitz prisoners about the atrocities there. Hitler, fearing a Hungarian rebellion, stopped the deportations on July 8. Horthy would eventually try to extricate himself from the war altogether—only to be kidnapped by Hitler’s agents and consequently forced to abdicate.

One day after the deportations stopped, a Swedish businessman, Raoul Wallenberg, having convinced the Swedish Foreign Ministry to send him to the Hungarian capital on a diplomatic passport, arrived in Budapest with 630 visas for Hungarian Jews, prepared to take them to Sweden to save them from further deportations.


Wheels West Day in Susanville History – July 30th, 1944

The Riverside hospital in Susanville, owned by Dr. G.S. Martin, has been sold to Dr. C.I. Burnett and Dr. J.W. Crever, Susanville physicians and surgeons, Dr. Martin announced today. The new owners will come into control of the hospital on August 1st.

Simultaneously it was announced that Miss Emma Randrup, registered nurse, would become superintendent of Riverside hospital, succeeding Mrs. Emma Lou Harte.

Dr. Martin, who will remain in Susanville as a practicing physician, releases himself from a position which he has held since 1920, when he first came to Susanville and built the Riverside hospital.

Riverside hospital today, representing an investment of approximately $125,000 began to serve the people in the fall of 1920. The hospital admission rolls now number over 12,000.

Dr. Burnett and Dr. Crever, new co-owners of the Riverside hospital are graduates of Stanford university Dr. Burnett a native of Salmon, Ida., is a graduate of Reno high school. He came to Susanville to practice medicine in 1927. Dr. Crever, a native of San Jose, Calif., who came to Susanville in 1938, is currently Lassen county health officer.

Miss Emma Randrup, new superintendent, is a graduate of Hahnemann hospital San Francisco, where she received her RN degree in 1920.

At the time of her graduation Hahnemann hospital was affiliated with the University of California and the Children’s hospital in San Francisco. She is a native of Janesville.

We are always looking for new pictures to preserve and share in our historical photo collection and we would love to see yours.Your picture will be added to our digital archive for future use and we will make sure you receive credit whenever possible. Email your contribution along with your name and a short description of what you’ve sent to [email protected] A digital copy of every submission will also be donated to the Lassen Historical Society for preservation in their files.

Don’t know how to scan your photos?

Our friends at the UPS Store have offered to professionally scan your vintage photo submissions for free. Just stop by 2850 Main Street in Susanville and they will be happy to help you.


30 July 1944 - History

T he heavy cruiser Indianapolis steamed out of San Francisco Bay just after dawn on July 16 wrapped in a heavy cloak of secrecy. In her belly, she carried the atomic bomb that three weeks later would be dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. She raced, unescorted, to the island of Tinian where she unloaded her lethal cargo on July 26. Her mission accomplished, the Indianapolis then began a journey into Hell that would end with the worst naval disaster in U.S. history.

From Tinian she sailed to the island of Guam and from there she was ordered to the Leyte Gulf in the Philippines to prepare for the invasion of Japan. Traveling without an escort, her voyage would take her through an oceanic No Man's Land infested with Japanese submarines and sharks.

The USS Indianapolis
At a few minutes past midnight on July 30 two Japanese torpedoes tore into her side, igniting an explosion that broke the ship in two. It took only twelve minutes for the ship to dip her bow, roll to starboard and slip beneath the sea. Of her crew of 1,196, an estimated 900 survived the explosion - but the worst was yet to come.

A few of those in the water were able to reach a raft or debris from the ship to cling to. Many wore life jackets that provided minimal buoyancy. Just as many, however, had neither raft nor life jacket and were forced to continually tread water to survive, finding relief only when a life jacket became available through the death of a shipmate. The sharks began attacking when the sun rose and continued their assault throughout the ordeal.

No alarm was raised when the ship failed to arrive at its destination. No rescue forces were dispatched to find the missing ship - its sinking went unnoticed. For four days a dwindling number of survivors fought a losing battle of life and death. Then, lady luck intervened. A Navy reconnaissance plane on routine patrol happened to spot the survivors and broadcast their position. Near-by ships rushed to the scene and began to pluck the sailors out of the water. A tally made at the completion of the rescue revealed that only 317 of the original estimated 900 who escaped the sinking ship survived their ordeal.

"I knew I was dying but I really didn't care."

Dr. Lewis Haynes was the Chief Medical Officer aboard the Indianapolis. Shortly after his rescue, he dictated his recollections to a corpsman in order to preserve an accurate account of his experience. These notes became the basis of an article published in 1995. We join his story as his sleep is interrupted just after midnight on July 30 by the violent explosion of a Japanese torpedo:

I emerged to see my neighbor Ken Stout. He said, &lsquoLet's go,&rsquo and stepped ahead of me into the main passageway. I was very close to him when he yelled, &lsquoLook out!&rsquo and threw his hands up. I lifted the life jacket in front of my face, and stepped back. As I did, a wall of fire went &lsquoWhoosh!&rsquo It burned my hair off, burned my face, and the back of my hands. That's the last I saw of Ken.

I started out trying to go to the forward ladder to go up on the fo'c'sle [forecastle - The section of the upper deck of a ship located at the bow forward of the foremast] deck, There was a lot of fire coming up through the deck right in front of the dentist's room. That's when I realized I couldn't go forward and turned to go aft. As I did, I slipped and fell, landing on my hands. I got third degree burns on my hands - my palms and all the tips of my fingers. I still have the scars. I was barefooted and the soles of my feet were burned off.

Then I turned aft to go back through the wardroom. I would have to go through the wardroom and down a long passageway to the quarterdeck, but there was a terrible hazy smoke with a peculiar odor. I couldn't breathe and got lost in the wardroom. I kept bumping into furniture and finally fell into this big easy chair. I felt so comfortable. I knew I was dying but I really didn't care.

Then someone standing over me said, &lsquoMy God, I'm fainting!&rsquo and he fell on me. Evidently that gave me a shot of adrenalin and I forced my way up and out. Somebody was yelling, &lsquoOpen a porthole!&rsquo All power was out and it was just a red haze.

The ship was beginning to list and I moved to that side of the ship. I found a porthole already open. Two other guys had gone out through it. I stuck my head out the porthole, gulping in some air, and found they had left a rope dangling. I looked down to see water rushing into the ship beneath me. I thought about going out the porthole into the ocean but I knew I couldn't go in there."

With great effort, Dr. Haynes manages to climb the rope to the deck above. He and an assistant begin to distribute life jackets to those around them. We rejoin his story as the ship lists violently signaling that she is about to sink:

". I slowly walked down the side of the ship. Another kid came and said he didn't have a jacket. I had an extra jacket and he put it on. We both jumped into the water which was covered with fuel oil. I wasn't alone in the water. The hull was covered with people climbing down.

I didn't want to get sucked down with the ship so I kicked my feet to get away. And then the ship rose up high. I thought it was going to come down and crush me. The ship kept leaning out away from me, the aft end rising up and leaning over as it stood up on its nose. The ship was still going forward at probably 3 or 4 knots. When it finally sank, it was over a hundred yards from me. Most of the survivors were strung out anywhere from half a mile to a mile behind the ship.

Suddenly the ship was gone and it was very quiet. It had only been 12 minutes since the torpedoes hit. We started to gather together. Being in the water wasn't an unpleasant experience except that the black fuel oil got in your nose and eyes. We all looked the same, black oil all over -- white eyes and red mouths. You couldn't tell the doctor from the boot seamen. Soon everyone had swallowed fuel oil and gotten sick. Then everyone began vomiting.

At that time, I could have hidden but somebody yelled, &lsquoIs the doctor there?&rsquo And I made myself known. From that point on -- and that's probably why I'm here today -- I was kept so busy I had to keep going. But without any equipment, from that point on I became a coroner.

The Japanese sub that sank the Indianapolis.
This photo was taken on April 1, 1946
just before the US Navy scuttled the
sub off the coast of Japan.
A lot of men were without life jackets. The kapok life jacket is designed with a space in the back. Those who had life jackets that were injured, you could put your arm through that space and pull them up on your hip and keep them out of the water. And the men were very good about doing this. Further more, those with jackets supported men without jackets. They held on the back of them, put their arms through there and held on floating in tandem.

When daylight came we began to get ourselves organized into a group and the leaders began to come out. When first light came we had between three and four hundred men in our group. I would guess that probably seven or eight hundred men made it out of the ship. I began to find the wounded and dead. The only way I could tell they were dead was to put my finger in their eye. If their pupils were dilated and they didn't blink I assumed they were dead. We would then laboriously take off their life jacket and give it to men who didn't have jackets. In the beginning I took off their dogtags, said The Lord's Prayer, and let them go. Eventually, I got such an armful of dogtags I couldn't hold them any longer. Even today, when I try to say The Lord's Prayer or hear it, I simply lose it.

. The second night, which was Monday night, we had all the men put their arms through the life jacket of the man in front of him and we made a big mass so we could stay together. We kept the wounded and those who were sickest in the center of the pack and that was my territory. Some of the men could doze off and sleep for a few minutes. The next day we found a life ring. I could put one very sick man across it to support him.

There was nothing I could do but give advice, bury the dead, save the life jackets, and try to keep the men from drinking the salt water when we drifted out of the fuel oil. When the hot sun came out and we were in this crystal clear water, you were so thirsty you couldn't believe it wasn't good enough to drink. I had a hard time convincing the men that they shouldn't drink. The real young ones - you take away their hope, you take away their water and food - they would drink salt water and then would go fast. I can remember striking men who were drinking water to try and stop them. They would get diarrhea, then get more dehydrated, then become very maniacal.
In the beginning, we tried to hold them and support them while they were thrashing around. And then we found we were losing a good man to get rid of one who had been bad and drank. As terrible as it may sound, towards the end when they did this, we shoved them away from the pack because we had to.

The water in that part of the Pacific was warm and good for swimming. But body temperature is over 98 and when you immerse someone up to their chin in that water for a couple of days, you're going to chill him down. So at night we would tie everyone close together to stay warm. But they still had severe chills which led to fever and delirium. On Tuesday night some guy began yelling, &lsquoThere's a Jap here and he's trying to kill me.&rsquo And then everybody started to fight. They were totally out of their minds. A lot of men were killed that night. A lot of men drowned. Overnight everybody untied themselves and got scattered in all directions. But you couldn't blame the men. It was mass hysteria. You became wary of everyone. Till daylight came, you weren't sure. When we got back together the next day there were a hell of a lot fewer.

I saw only one shark. I remember reaching out trying to grab hold of him. I thought maybe it would be food. However, when night came, things would bump against you in the dark or brush against your leg and you would wonder what it was. But honestly, in the entire 110 hours I was in the water I did not see a man attacked by a shark. However, the destroyers that picked up the bodies afterwards found a large number of those bodies. In the report I read 56 bodies were mutilated, Maybe the sharks were satisfied with the dead they didn't have to bite the living.

We rejoin Dr. Haynes' story two days later:

Two survivors are brought
aboard the Cecil J. Doyle
"It was Thursday [2 Aug] when the plane spotted us. By then we were in very bad shape. The kapok life jacket becomes waterlogged. It's good for about 48 hours. We sunk lower down in the water and you had to think about keeping your face out of water. I knew we didn't have very long to go. The men were semicomatose. We were all on the verge of dying when suddenly this plane flew over. I'm here today because someone on that plane had a sore neck. He went to fix the aerial and got a stiff neck and lay down in the blister underneath. While he was rubbing his neck he saw us

The plane dropped life jackets with canisters of water but the canisters ruptured. Then a PBY [seaplane] showed up and dropped rubber life rafts. We put the sickest people aboard and the others hung around the side. I found a flask of water with a 1-ounce cup. I doled out the water, passing the cup down hand to hand. Not one man cheated and I know how thirsty they were.

Towards the end of the day, just before dark, I found a kit for making fresh water out of salt water. I tried to read the instructions, but couldn't make sense of it or get it to work right. My product tasted like salt water and I didn't want to take a chance so I threw it into the ocean. I then went to
pieces.

I watched the PBY circle and suddenly make an open-sea landing. This took an awful lot of guts. It hit, went back up in the air and splashed down again. I thought he'd crashed but he came taxiing back. I found out later he was taxiing around picking up the singles. If he hadn't done this, I don't think we would have survived. He stayed on the water during the night and turned his searchlight up into the sky so the Cecil J. Doyle (DE-368) could find us. The ship came right over and began picking us up."

References:
This eyewitness account appears in: Haynes, Lewis L. "Survivor of the Indianapolis." Navy Medicine 86, no.4 (Jul.-Aug. 1995) Stanton, Doug, In Harm's Way (2001).


Chris Waltham's Family History

At least two family members landed in Normandy in June 1944. One survived (my Dad), and one didn't.

Dad had spent three rather peaceful and sunny years on Gibraltar with the 703rd Artisan Company, Royal Engineers. Here he was able to observe preparations for pivotal battles elsewhere (Malta, North Africa, Sicily) but stayed well out of harm's way. However, this blessed situation was shortly to change.

He sailed for England on September 25th, 1943, and after about a week at sea, arrived at the King George V dock at Clydesbank. Then to Leicester, Wigston Fields, Queniborough (Royal Ordance Factory) near Rearsby, and Rudgswick near Horsham. Then to Aldershot (Gibraltar barracks) in Dec 1943 for a six-week intensive training course. They spent a few months at Weston on the Wirral peninsular until July 1944, except for a while in June 1944 spent in Upper Norwood, East London, cleaning up after V1 attacks. Then to Newhaven ready for crossing the channel. I do not know whether he remained in the 703rd up to this point.

On D+21 (?) the company crossed to Normandy in a U.S. Army LCT and landed at Sword beach. They camped in an orchard near Bayeux until early September. That is all he ever said about this time, a time that encompassed the titanic struggle for nearby Caen.

Remains of the floating harbour, Arromanches, 2005

Two of Dad's granddaughters, Arromanches, 2005



After the breakout from Caen, Dad crossed the Seine at Vernon on a pontoon bridge (probably a Bailey Bridge built by his company). Thence to Brussels via Amiens, Poix, Evreux, Charlesvoix, Tournay and Mechelin.

Dad had an Aunt Louisa (Johnson), who had a son Charles who died in the battle for Caen in July 1944. Unfortunately he never said (or knew?) Louisa's married name (they some distance away in Desford, Leicestershire) and contact had been lost a long time ago), and Johnson is a very common name. However, after some digging I found a Louisa Johnson married a fellow called Burton in 1912 in Dad's home town of Worksop, and they lost their son Charles, a Trooper fighting with the 2nd Derbyshire Yeomanry, Royal Armoured Corps in "Western Europe" on 6th July 1944. The Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists his grave in the Hermannville Cemetery, 13 km north of Caen. The site www.forces-war-records.co.uk lists a Charles Thomas Burton as having been born in Lincolnshire but lived in Leicestershire. This is suggestive, as the Johnson family lived in South Lincolnshire before moving to Worksop and thence to Desford.

But then my cousin tells me his Mum talked of a cousin who died in Normandy called Walter Johnson, so unless Louisa married another Johnson (not impossible), he has to be Harry or William's son ( two other brothers who survived to adulthood were bachelors). Harry did indeed have son called Walter, but he seems to have died in 1971. The Commonwealth War Graves Commission reports two Walter Johnsons in the British Army died in 1944: one died on D-Day and had a father named William, but his family were from London, and "my" William Johnson, lived in Doncaster.


Re: Red Army OOB on 1 July 1944

Post by Kelvin » 24 Sep 2010, 16:34

8th and 4 Guards antitank brigades were attached to 69th Army but in Berlin Operation, 8th and 40th Antitank Brigades were attached to 3rd Shock Army.

Additional 3 antitank brigades were sent to reinforce 1st Byelorussian Front : 25th and 39th Antitank Brigades and 45th Antitank Brigade to 3rd Shock Army during late 1944 and early 1945. After Feb 1945, 33rd Antitank Brigade was reinforced to Front too.

Both 1st and 2nd Guards Tank Armies also had their organic light artillery Brigades : 1st Guards Tank Army had 197th Light Artillery Brigades while 2nd Guards Tank Army had 198th Light Artillery Brigades

Re: Red Army OOB on 1 July 1944

Post by Kelvin » 25 Sep 2010, 22:13

During Soviet offensive in Jan 1945, 8th Guards Army were reinforced with 6th and 22nd Breakthrough Artillery Divisions.

In Jan 1945, 1st Byelorussian Front had 2 Guards, 3 Guards, 4 Guards, 13th, 18th, 24th, 31st and 64th AA Divisions. Later had 19th AA division joined it

Correction : In Jan 1945,1st Byelorussian Front had 3 Guards, 4th Guards, 8th, 20th, 25th, 38th, 39th, 40th, 41st Antitank Brigades. Later 45th and 33rd antitank brigades joined it

Antitank Brigades location on Feb 1 1945
38th was under 8th Guards Army, 40th was under 5th Shock Army,20th under 33rd Army, 4th Guards under 47th Army, 8th under 69th Army,41st was under 1st Guards Tank Army, 3rd Guards, 25th and 39th were under the Front direct control.

AA division on Feb 1 1945 : 2nd Guards AA divison under 5th Shock Army, 3rd Guard AA under 8th Guards Army, 64th AA d under 33rd army, 31st AA under 47th Army, 13th AA under 61st Army, 4th Guards aA under 1st Guards Tank Army, 24th under 2nd Guards Tank Army and 18th and 19th AA under front control.


On Jan 1 1945, 8th Guards Army controlled 3rd Guards, 4th Guards and 13th AA division, 38th and 41st antitank brigades, 6th and 22nd Breakthrough artillery divisions and 43rd Gun Artillery Brigade.
47th Army controlled 31st AA division and 30th Gun Artillery division. 69th Army conttrolled 4th Guards and 8th antitank brigades and 18th AA division And Front directly controlled 2nd Guards, 24th and 64th AA division and 3rd Guards, 20, 25, 39 and 40th antitank Brigades


Historical Events of BC (Before Christ)

1500-1000: Early Vedic Period or Rig Vedic Period

539- 467: Life of Vardhaman Mahavira

567-487: Life of Gautama Buddha

327-26: Alexander’s invasion of India and the opening of land route between India and Europe

269-232: Ashoka’s reign

261: Battle of Kalinga

57: Beginning of Vikrama Era

30: Satvahana dynasty in Deccan. Pandyan Empire in for South


30 July 1944 - History

Summary of Events for No. 439 (CAN) Squadron

as recorded in the 439 Squadron Operations Record Book

R.C.A.F. Lantheuil

Scattered cloud all morning improving in the afternoon. One operation was carried out in the evening. Since we didn't operate until late in the day, sports played a large part in the day's program. Padre Ashford had a full house again at the Dispersal Mess where he conducted his service at 14:00 hours.

Detail of Work Carried Out by No. 439 RCAF Squadron

as compiled by in the 439 Squadron Operations Record Book Form 541

A/C Type & Number Crew Duty Up Down
MN555

F/O Hewson (1)

Fighter Cover

Details of Sortie or Flight

The spot chosen for the evening's entertainment was the wood just south of the main railway junction to the east of L'Aigle. The crossing in and out of Indian Country was made through the "flak gate" by Cherbourg. Since enemy aircraft have been operating in this area quite recently, two aircraft flew as Fighter Escort, and dropped their bombs on the railway line (4212) just west of Cabourg . Results were not observed.

The passage to L'Aigle was through swarms of friendly aircraft at 10,000 ft. The attack dive was made from the Southwest from 8,000 down to 3,000 ft. The 16 x 10000 lb bombs released were liberally sprinkled throughout the target area. A small amount of light flak was thrown up together with a prayer, but neither one resulted in any damage to our aircraft.

A short Armed Recce was carried out on the return journey, but no movement was seen and no targets presented themselves for attack. Two "bogeys" near Rouen by F/O Johns and F/O Henderson but despite anxious wishing they did not come near enough to be engaged. All aircraft and pilots returned safely to base.

Note: Show type of bomb used. Show target. Show results of Operation. If in co-operation with other squadrons, or just a squadron operation. New tactics adopted. Damage to aircraft either by flak or enemy aircraft. Engine failure, and if possible reason for failure. (2)

Webmaster's Notes:

(1) The Logbook of F/O GW Hewson records that they had encountered very light flak which he described as being not very accurate over the target. only, alluding that it might have been tougher getting to and from the target area. He goes on to mention that the target was a dump and that the mission turned out to be a pleasant but duff show.

(2) The above mission note was recorded on a "Sub Form 541 (Appendix No. 7 , Page 8) and was an advisory to the scribes of the day to record every aspect of every mission probably for future historical purposes.


At year's end

At the end of each year, Billboard tallies the results of all of its charts, and the results are published in a year-end issue and heard on year-end editions of its American Top 40 and American Country Countdown radio broadcasts, in addition to being announced in the press. Between 1991 and 2006, the top single/album/artist(s) in each of those charts was/were awarded in the form of the annual Billboard Music Awards, which were annually held in December until the awards went dormant in 2007 (plans for a new version of the awards in 2008 fell through, and no awards have been held since 2007). The year-end charts cover a period from the first week of December of the previous year to the last week of November of the respective year.

AT OLD-CHARTS YEAR-END TOP 150 CHARTS BASED ON THE CHARTS FROM JANUARY - DECEMBER!! (POINT-SYSTEM NR. 1: 100 POINTS etc.)


Watch the video: The Secret Plot To Kill Hitler. Operation Valkyrie. Timeline (May 2022).