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Battle of Nordlingen, (2), 3 August 1645

Battle of Nordlingen, (2), 3 August 1645


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The Thirty Years War , C.V.Wedgewood. Despite its age (first published in 1938), this is still one of the best english language narratives of this most complex of wars, tracing the intricate dance of diplomacy and combat that involved all of Europe in the fate of Germany.


Battle of Nordlingen, (2), 3 August 1645 - History

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The Thirty Years' War: The French War 1635-48 and the Dutch War with Spain 1620-48

"THE LAST PHASE OF THE WAR AND THE ROAD TO SETTLEMENT

"France was now faced by the prospect of a Spanish offensive supported by the emperor&rsquos army against the garrisons it had placed beyond its frontiers, in Lorraine, Alsace, and along the upper Rhine and Moselle rivers in the preceding years. In answer to an attack on the prince-bishop of Trier, who had become a French ally and client in 1632, Louis XIII declared war on Spain in May 1635. With the emperor&rsquos own declaration of war on France in March 1636, the war in Germany had, it seemed, finally fused with the all-European conflict between Spain and its enemies, which had already decisively influenced events in the empire in the past. Whereas French financial subsidies helped Sweden gradually recover from the defeat of Nordlingen, Spanish resources became increasingly inadequate to finance the worldwide war effort of the monarchy in the early 1640s. Spain suffered important naval defeats against the Dutch off the English coast in 1639 (Battle of the Downs) and near Recife in Brazil in 1640. Moreover, in 1640 both Catalonia and Portugal revolted against Castilian rule in an attempt to shake off the fiscal and political burden imposed on them by warfare. Spain did not recognize Portugal&rsquos independence until 1668 and managed to reconquer Catalonia in the 1650s. Nevertheless, it was no longer able to launch major offensive operations in central Europe. Emperor Ferdinand III (ruled 1637&ndash1657), reluctantly supported by the majority of the German princes, was now virtually on his own in his fight against both France (which had committed a major army to operations in southern Germany) and Sweden. Nevertheless, the war dragged on for another eight years.

"The logistics of warfare in a country that had been utterly devastated by continuous fighting and lacked the most essential provisions proved a major obstacle to large-scale offensive operations. For this reason, victories won in battles could rarely be fully exploited. Moreover, a war between Denmark and Sweden (1643&ndash1645) gave the emperor&rsquos army time to recover after the devastating defeat it had suffered in the second battle of Breitenfeld in November 1642. However, in March 1645 the Swedes beat the imperial army decisively at Jankov in Bohemia. Although Ferdinand III was able to buy off Sweden&rsquos ally Transylvania, which had once more, as in the 1620s, intervened in the war (supported halfheartedly by the sultan), by territorial and religious concessions in Hungary, he was now forced to come to terms with his opponents. His allies in Germany became increasingly restless and either withdrew from active participation in warfare altogether or insisted on ending the war. Reluctantly the emperor entered into negotiations with Sweden in Osnabruck and with France in neighboring Munster in autumn 1645. Against his wishes, the German princes and Estates were allowed to participate in the peace conference, sending their own envoys to Westphalia. Partly because Ferdinand hesitated to abandon his old ally Spain, it was nevertheless three years before a settlement was reached.

"Peace between France and Spain proved elusive. So when the peace treaties were signed at Munster and Osnabruck on 24 October 1648, the Franco-Spanish conflict was deliberately excluded from the settlement. The treaties, known as the Peace of Westphalia, therefore failed to provide the basis for a truly European peace. The complicated legal arrangements that dealt with the various constitutional and religious problems of the Holy Roman Empire, on the other hand, proved remarkably long-lasting and stable, being invoked right up to the end of the empire in 1806."

Source: Jonathan Dewald - Editor in Chief, Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of The Early Modern World (Thomson Gale, 2004), Volume 6, Thirty Years&rsquo War, pages 31-32


The French conquest of Lorraine was nearly complete by March 1634 during the Thirty Years War. The only place of importance still in the hands of Duke Charles of Lorraine, a Hapsburg commander, was the fortress of La Motte, which was encircled by a French army under Marechal La Force. To finally overcome it, La Force tasked a young colonel to lead his infantry regiment in storming a breach in the strongpoint’s defenses.

Attacking uphill into the teeth of enemy musketry and artillery, the young colonel led his soldiers as they fought their way into the center of the fortress. The garrison soon surrendered. The French government was so impressed with the successful assault on La Motte that it promoted 24-year-old Henri de la Tour d’ Auvergne to the rank of marechal- de-camp.

Born in the city of Sedan on September 11, 1611, Henri was the second son of Henri de la Tour d’Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne and Duke de Bouillon, a noted soldier and leader of the French Huguenots, and his wife Elizabeth of Nassau, daughter of William the Silent, Prince of Orange. Henri had chestnut brown hair, was of medium height, broad shouldered, short necked, and possessed a high prominent forehead with high cheek bones. He was brought up as a Protestant but converted to Catholicism in 1668. Turenne, as his contemporaries called him, would serve in a number of 17th-century conflicts during the course of his illustrious military career. In addition to the Thirty Years War, Turenne played a prominent role in the Franco-Spanish War, The Fronde, War of Devlution, and the Franco-Dutch War.

Turenne’s military career began when his family sent him to serve in the army of his mother’s brother, Prince Maurice of Nassau, Stadtholder of the Dutch United Provinces. Starting as a common soldier in the prince’s bodyguard, Turenne impressed his uncle to such a degree that he was soon made a captain of infantry at the age of 15. His military service in Holland lasted five years and chiefly involved siege operations. The Dutch bestowed upon him a special commendation for bravery shown during the siege of Bois-le-Duc in 1629.

Turenne left the Netherlands in 1630 and entered the service of France, motivated as much by the desire of his mother to prove the loyalty of her family to the French crown as to secure for her son fur- ther military advancement. By then the Thirty Years War had been raging for 12 years. Although it began as a civil war within the Holy Roman Empire, it took on an inter- national character with the interven- tion of Sweden and France, both of which went to war against the Haps- burg rulers of Spain and Austria.

French Minister of State Cardinal Richelieu promoted 19-year-old Turenne to colonel of an infantry regiment in 1630. Following his courageous performance at La Motte, Richelieu promoted him to marechal-de-camp, the equivalent of major general.

Turenne was stolid and reserved. The most salient feature of his character was his trust- worthiness. A gentlemen soldier, he felt little, if any, personal animosity toward his opponents in warfare. He was unemotional in military matters. His battlefield tactics and campaign strategies were driven by logical calculation rather than fire and dash. Toward his superior officers he was scrupulously obedient, obliging, and good tempered. To his subordinates he never sharply reprimanded them in public, but reserved that for private meetings, and was quick to give an officer who had made a mis- step a second chance. The marshal was considerate and kind toward the rank and file.

Turrene’s French troops drove the Bavarian right wing from the high ground at the Second Battle of Nordlingen in 1645, contributing heavily to the French victory.

France intervened directly in the Thirty Years War in 1635. Turenne participated in the Lorraine and Rhine campaign under Louis de Nogaret, Cardinal de la Valette. After raising the siege of Mainz, the French and their allies had to fall back after their supply lines were cut by the enemy. During a disastrous retreat marked by great privation suffered by the allied forces, Turenne did yeoman service conducting a series of rearguard actions that saved the army from dissolution. During this episode the general not only showed great personal courage and an understanding of the need for proper army logistical management, but also a sincere regard for the welfare of his men.

Turenne was wounded in the right arm dur- ing the storming of Saverne in 1636. He was then given his first independent command with orders to drive an Imperialist army out of Hapsburg-controlled Franche-Comte, which he achieved rapidly and with few losses. The fol- lowing year he took part in the Flanders campaign. Although that year’s fighting proved indecisive, Turenne, who by then was a lieutenant general, again proved himself to be a competentcommander. In 1638 he was instrumental in taking the key fortress of Breisach on the right bank of the Rhine River. The capture of Breisach safeguarded French control of Alsace and Burgundy.

Sent to Italy by his patron, Richelieu, Turenne took part in the continuing Franco-Spanish War, serving under Henri de Lorraine, Count of Harcourt. Turenne performed ably in the complicated siege operations that enabled the French to capture Turin on September 20, 1640.

Afterward, he helped capture the Piedmontese cities of Cuneo, Ceva, and Mondovi in 1641. The following year he served as second in command of the French forces that con- quered Roussillon in Catalonia.

France bestowed the rank of Marshal of France on 32-year-old Turenne on December 19, 1643. His first orders were to reorganize French forces on the upper Rhine in the aftermath of the embarrassing defeat of French forces at Tuttlingen in Swabia on November 24-25, 1643, at the hands of General Franz von Mercy’s Bavarian army.

In the spring of 1644, Turenne crossed the Rhine at Breisach and defeated an Imperialist force near the source of the Danube River and Black Forest. He joined forces with Louis de Bourbon, Duke of Enghien, known as the Great Condé, and with a force of 19,000 men the two French commanders defeated Mercy’s Bavar- ian army at Freiburg in August 1644. Although Condé was in charge of the French forces because he was a royal prince, it was Turenne’s tactical abilities that compelled Mercy to retreat east from Freiburg.

The armies of France and Sweden waged a war of maneuver against the Imperial-Bavarian army in the final months of the Thirty Years War. At Zusmarshausen in 1648, Turenne overtook Raimondo Montecuccoli’s retreating army and crushed its rear guard.

The fighting between Turenne and Mercy went back and forth across southern Germany. In March 1645, Turenne again crossed the Rhine with 11,000 troops and attacked Mercy south of Wurzburg. On May 2, Mercy counterattacked Turenne, whose forces were dispersed at the time, at Marienthal, defeating his opponent and forcing Turenne to retreat to the Rhine River. Then, Condé and Turenne led an army of 15,000 French troops into Swabia and defeated Mercy’s 12,000 Bavarians at the Second Battle of Nordlingen on August 3, 1645.

Although Condé was in overall command, the victory was Turenne’s alone. With the French right and center defeated, it was Turenne’s furious cavalry charge against the Bavarian right flank that sent Mercy’s troops fleeing from the battlefield. But a reinforced Imperialist army drove the French back to the Rhine. Time was on France’s side, though. The Thirty Years War entered its final stage, and both Bavaria and Austria would soon be forced to capitulate.

In 1646 a Franco-Swedish army co-commanded by Turenne and Carl Gustaf Wrangel conducted a series of strategic marches in which they advanced from Freiburg to the gates of Munich, capturing several key fortresses along the way. Bavaria signed the Truce of Ulm with France and Sweden on March 14, 1647. In the autumn of 1647 Bavaria broke the truce to assist Austria in its struggle with France and Sweden. This afforded Turenne another opportunity to fight the Imperialists. He led a Franco-Swedish army to victory against the Imperialist forces in the last battle of the Thirty Years War fought at Zusmarshausen on May 17, 1648.

During the protracted Thirty Years War, Turenne had led French forces to victory multiple times. In the aftermath of the conflict, he came to be regarded as the leading French commander in the Thirty Years War.

Turenne next served as a commander during The Fronde, a French civil war that lasted for five years from 1648 to 1653. At first, Turenne sided with the anti-royalist party, but by 1651 he had switched sides and was leading royalist armies against the Frondeurs and their Spanish allies. Turenne defeated Condé’s rebel army at the Battle of Faubourg St. Antoine on July 2, 1652, and occupied Paris in the aftermath. From 1653 to 1658, he repeatedly defeated Spanish armies on both France’s eastern and southern borders. His greatest achievement during that period was leading an Anglo- French force to victory over a Spanish-Royal- ist army at the Battle of the Dunes fought on June 14, 1658.

After King Louis XIV took personal control of the French government on April 4, 1660, the French king rewarded Turenne for his many past services to the crown by elevating him to Marshal-General of the Camps and Armies of the King. This honor gave the recipient the authority to control all the land forces of France at a time when a marshal only commanded a single army and gave him greater control over the organization and training of the French armies.

Turenne played a prominent role in the War of Devolution from 1667 to 1668, in which Louis XIV’s armies conquered the Hapsburg- controlled Spanish Netherlands and the Franche-Comte. Unfortunately for the French king, the subsequent Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle compelled the French to return Franche-Comte to Spain however, the French managed to retain a small part of Flanders.

In 1670, King Louis XIV enlisted Turenne to negotiate the Treaty of Dover with England. The treaty required England to aid France in its war of conquest against the Dutch Republic. In the wake of the treaty, King Louis began planning his invasion of Holland. Louis’s plan called for both Turenne and Condé to have leading roles in the enterprise, although not operating near each other. Louis planned to establish separate commands for other marshals, which would be supervised when necessary by either the king or Turenne.

During many of his military operations Turenne led armies inferior in size to those of his opponents, but this situation was reversed during the Franco-Dutch War of 1672 to 1678. Against a Dutch field army numbering merely 25,000, with another 12,000 garrisoning the vital Meuse River fortress of Maestricht, and 6,000 Spanish allies, Louis had an active army of 100,000, with an additional 30,000 men provided by several German allies. Turenne commanded the majority of the French forces.

Turenne planned the initial stages of the attack on Holland, including the taking of Maestricht with limited forces, while marching to the Rhine River and capturing many towns and enemy strongpoints along the way. However, once the French entered the United Provinces the main Dutch army would have to be faced. Condé’s men were soon placed under Turenne as the French advanced on Amsterdam, burning and pillaging the entire way. In response to the French juggernaut, the Dutch flooded Brabant, Holland, and Dutch Flanders.

Widespread flooding precluded military operations, so the two sides attempted to negotiate a peace treaty. But the Dutch deemed the French terms too harsh and rejected them. Turenne had counseled more lenient conditions, but Louis XIV would not hear of it.

Fearing the growing power of France, the major European powers began to unite against her. In 1672 Austrian and Brandenburg forces converged on the Rhine River to join forces with the Dutch. Turenne blocked repeated attempts by these forces to cross the Rhine. Although this involved little fighting, it did require frequent marches. In 1673, he drove the Austrians and Brandenburgers out of Westphalia and advanced on Frankfurt. This compelled Frederick William, the Elector of Brandenburg, to abandon his alliance with the Dutch.

Turenne, with only 20,000 men, was facing 40,000 soldiers of an Austrian-Saxon coalition supported by several minor German states commanded by Italian Raimondo Montecuccoli. Montecuccoli marched to rendezvous with the Dutch on the Lower Rhine. Turenne moved to block the junction of their armies. Giving the Frenchman the slip, the Italians joined the Dutch at Bonn. This one masterful stroke forced the French from Holland. Turenne then went into winter quarters in Alsace and Lorraine.

The campaign of 1674 witnessed a broad coalition that included practically all of the major European powers fighting the French. As a result, Louis abandoned all the territory he had taken on the Rhine and Meuse in the previous two military operations. Turenne was tasked with safeguarding the Rhine front with an army of only 15,000 men. In this operation Turenne demonstrated more than in any other campaigns of the wars of Louis XIV that maneuver could be an effective means of defense. During June he crossed the Rhine and with only 9,000 men defeated an Imperialist force at the Battle of Sinzheim on June 16. Turenne, sword in hand, led a number of cavalry charges himself. However, in August a reinforced Imperialist army took Strasbourg, giving France’s foes access to Alsace.

Turenne was struck by a cannonball at the Battle of Sasbach in 1675 during the Franco-Dutch War. As a tribute to the great captain, King Louis XIV insisted that Turenne’s body be interred in the Abbey of Saint Denis, the burial place reserved for French monarchs.

Determined to beat back the Austrians before they were reinforced by an advancing Brandenburg-Prussian army, Turenne attacked Field Marshal Alexander von Bournonville’s Imperialist army near Entzheim on October 4, but only achieved a draw. Both sides withdrew after suffering upward of 3,000 casualties. Turenne continued his efforts to liberate Alsace by conducting a surprise march in the winter in a time when armies campaigned from spring to fall and remained static during the winter. The famous effort became known as Turenne’s Winter Campaign.

Turenne led his army southward from Saverne in northern Alsace in early December using the Vosges Mountains to screen its movement. The Imperialists were garrisoned for the winter in bivouacs on the left bank of the Rhine River from Strasbourg to Mulhouse. Aware that spies were operating in the region, Turenne divided his army into small units sending them over snow-covered mountains. The French units regrouped at Belfort. Turrene and Bournonville clashed at Mulhouse on December 29. Turenne defeated the Imperialists, forcing them to withdraw northward.

Turenne then advanced on Colmar, where a fresh army under the Elector of Brandenburg gave battle at Turckheim. Turenne launched an aggressive assault with his 30,000 hungry and footsore troops. After feinting to the center and right, Turenne struck Frederick William’s left, forcing him off the field. Although Turenne did not follow up his victory at Turckheim with a vigorous pursuit of his opponent, it took away nothing from Turenne’s brilliantly conceived and executed Winter Campaign.

The war continued in 1675 in Germany with Montecuccoli facing off once more against Turenne. From June to late July, the Imperialists maneuvered to gain entry to Alsace, while the French marched to prevent that occurrence. On July 22, Turenne began a turning movement with his 25,000 men to pin his antagonist against the Rhine before the latter could cross into Alsace. Alerted to the looming danger, Montecuccoli withdrew his army to the east and the mountains. Turenne chased the retreating foe and forced him to halt and confront him at the town of Sasbach on July 27.

As the two armies readied for battle, Turenne and his chief of artillery, Saint Hilaire, reconnoitered an enemy artillery battery sited on the French right. Perhaps because the red cloak worn by Saint-Hilaire caught the attention of the gunners, they fired at Turenne’s party. The result was that a cannon ball tore off Saint- Hilaire’s arm and struck Turenne in the upper body, killing him. “Today died a man who did honor to mankind,” said Montecuccoli upon learning of Turenne’s death.

Turenne’s death compromised the French campaign, and the French army fell back in good order on July 29. Montecuccoli pressed the French and fought a bitter battle with them at the Schutter River. With Turenne gone there was no doubt the French would abandon the Rhine region and retire to Alsace. Condé assumed command of the forces, and it was only with great difficulty that they were able to hold Alsace for the rest of the year.

After Turenne’s death, King Louis XIV insisted that Turenne’s body be interred in the Abbey of Saint Denis, burial place of the French kings. Napoleon Bonaparte later had the remains removed to Les Invalides in Paris, where they remain to this day.

Turenne showed great tactical brilliance over his long career however, in the realm of strategy he was cautious. Great maneuvers such as his Winter Campaign of 1674-1675 were his stock and trade. Furthermore, he always strived to keep his army well supplied, and he looked closely after his troops’ well-being. Turenne was arguably the most talented French general to serve Louis XIV. Napoleon regarded Turenne as one of history’s greatest commanders, and for that reason he instructed all of his officers to study Turenne’s campaigns.


One evening, in April 1645, two young men, between twenty-five and thirty, are having a discussion in a sumptuous apartment in the Rue Saint-Antoine, in Paris. One of them, the host, is called Louis de Prat, Marquis de Precy. The other is Charles-Pompee d’Angennes, Marquis de Pisani, son of the Marquise de Rambouillet, whose Blue Room was the first of the literary salons.

The two friends, who were soon to leave for Flanders to join the regiments of the Prince de Conde, were talking about death and the survival of the soul. Precy was worried that, if he were killed and buried on the battlefield, he might have to haunt it for eternity.

The Marquis de Pisani didn’t believe in haunting ghosts. He was of the opinion that the soul entered into another, completely different world, and forgot about Earth. Precy thought that the dead were all around the living, but that the dead and the living were unable to communicate with each other. He wondered about Hell, Paradise and Purgatory. Are we rewarded for our good deeds and punished for our faults? Does our life on Earth determine our life in the next world? To be able to answer these questions, it would be necessary to communicate with the dead.

Pisani has an idea. They are both going off to war. They might be killed. He proposes that the first of them to die should come back to give the other some information on the afterlife, in whatever way that he can. The two friends shake hands on it.

Two months pass by and, toward the end of June, the young men receive the order to join their regiment. Unfortunately, the Marquis de Precy is in bed with a bad temperature and the Marquis de Pisani leaves alone for Flanders.

One month later, on 4 August, around six o’clock in the morning, Precy, who is still ill, is asleep in his bedroom, turned toward the wall, when he is woken by someone drawing his bed-curtains. He turns around, thinking that his valet is bringing him a cup of milk and a biscuit, and sees at his bedside the Marquis de Pisani, looking superb in leather uniform and boots. Full of joy, he rises and wants to hug him. But Pisani moves a few paces away. He tells his friend that he can’t embrace him. Naturally, Precy wants to know why.

“Because I’m dead. I came to see you like I promised. You remember our pact? I was killed yesterday at Nordlingen, in Bavaria… The troops of Mr de Gramont had just engaged in battle against Mr de Mercy who commanded the Imperial Armies. Straight away, the fighting was frightful. And I fell at six o’clock, before the village of Allerheim…”

Precy is sure that it’s a joke, and laughing, he again wants to embrace him. His arms close on thin air. The person in front of him has no consistency. He is astounded.

Pisani shows him where he was wounded. There is a tear in his clothes, surrounded by blood, in his back.

“I’m really dead, Louis. And I come to tell you, in answer to our questions, that it’s all true. The afterlife is peopled with souls. Some are near you. But there are things that I can’t explain to you. However, you must know that you should live in a less frivolous manner… Hurry, Louis, you have no time to lose, for you will be killed in the first battle in which you participate… “

The Marquis de Precy, deeply disturbed, immediately calls his chamber-valet and wakes the entire household with his cries. Everyone rushes to him. He recounts all that he has just seen and heard.

“He was there, in uniform, with his boots, and he showed me the trace of the wound that killed him. He died yesterday, in Bavaria, during a terrible battle.”

Someone tells the Marquis to go back to bed. His friend had not gone to Bavaria, but to Flanders. His high temperature was giving him hallucinations.

Precy can insist all he wants, give details and swear that he is absolutely sure, no-one wants to believe him.

And, one morning, news arrives from the Army. They learn that, Turenne finding himself in difficulty with the Imperial Armies, Conde had been sent to help him, that the regiments which were in Flanders had gone to Bavaria and, that during the terrible fighting at Nordlingen, the Marquis de Pisani had been killed on 3 August, at six o’clock in the evening, by musket fire in the back, before the village of Allerheim.

This news, which couldn’t possibly have been known to Precy the day after the Battle of Nordlingen, stupefies his friends.

But there are always some people who want to give reassuring explanations to phenomena they don’t understand. Therefore, we see certain people declaring with authority that the young Marquis transformed into a vision a simple premonition created by the friendship which connected him to Pisani.

Others say, with the same assurance, that he just dreamed it. That people often have premonitory dreams containing details of great precision. That there was nothing supernatural about it.

Precy is convinced that he hadn’t dreamed it and that his vision was not a simple premonition. So, to be sure not to die in a battle, as the ghost of his friend had predicted, he decides, prudently, that once cured, he will not join the army of Mr de Conde.

And for years afterwards, he flees anything that resembles the military state.

Then the Fronde breaks out, and divides France. Precy, considering that this uprising was not a real war, accepts the commandment of Mazarin’s gendarmes.

On 2 July 1652, he is in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine, fighting against Conde’s regiments, when the Grande Mademoiselle, perched on the Bastille, gives orders to fire on the royal troops.

In the evening, Precy’s body is found in the middle of a pile of cadavers.

It was the first battle in which the young Marquis had participated…


THE FINGER OF PROVIDENCE. There is a Divinity which Shapes our Ends, Rough How them as we Will!

There is nothing more remarkable in the history of nations than the marvelous manner in which Providence often seems to reverse the affairs of great Captains and mighty Kingdoms -- in one case by discomfitures or casualties, when they felt themselves secure of victory, or almost omnipotent in their power in another by occasioning defeat, by the intervention of seemingly powerless individuals, at the very hour of the calculated triumph of the party superior in numbers, preparation, experience, and ability.

It ever there flourished a modest, yet consummate, General, it was TURENNE. The only occasion when he expressed any concern for life, or declared that he was certain of winning a battle, was only a few hours before he lost his life, by a random cannon shot, July 26, 1675, and the result of all his labors and plans vanished with his breath, as it were.

MERCI, one of TURENNE's great opponents, expressed his joyful conviction of winning the battle of Allersheim, or Nordlingen 2d, -- on the 3d August, 1645, at the very moment before a musket-bullet struck him, with fatal effect. "Victory is ours! God has turned the heads of these Frenchmen. They'll soon be routed!" he exclaimed triumphantly, and was almost instantaneously a corpse. With the departing spirit of the German hero, victory abandoned the Imperial eagles to perch upon the banners of the French, Merci's army, victorious up to that moment, thereupon suffered a disastrous defeat.

Upon the banks of the Suc. at Aughrim. 18 miles southwest of Athlone, 22d July, 1691, ST. RUTH awaited, upon his chosen held of battle, the attack of the Anglo-Dutch army, whose repeated attacks be there repelled with murderous effect. The fate of Ireland depended upon the next few minutes. ST. RUTH felt certain of conquering, but had scarcely uttered the triumphant boast, "Now I will beat these English bull-dogs back to Dublin," when a three-pounder cannon-shot carried off his head. A few hours afterward the Irish army was annihilated or dispersed, and the fate of Ireland decided, apparently, forever. What is more curious, tradition says the fatal shot was aimed by the hand of an Irish peddler, whose wife had been outraged by ST. RUTH's soldiers. Having failed to receive redress at the hands of the Gallo-Irish General-in-Chief, he determined upon revenging himself, and enjoyed the opportunity of avenging a host of martyrs sacrificed by the ruthless ST. RUTH.

At Waterloo NAPOLEON was so assured of a favorable result, that when the morning of the 18th June, 1815, broke, and he saw the English ready to receive his attacks, he could scarcely restrain his joy. "I have got them now at last, those English!" That night his sabre-sceptre was broken, his throne had crumbled, his army was a shattered, scattered wreck, and his power and prestige vanished with the smoke of the conflict.

Similar instances occur so frequently at crises, that any reflecting, bible-read man must recognize the omnipotont finger of overruling Providence.

The Invincible Armada sailed forth, as PHILIP II. believed, to certain victory. A flavit Deus et dissipantur. The winds and the waves had a thousandfold more to do with its destruction than all the devices of genius and the efforts of valor. Well might the Dutch inscribe upon their commemorative medal, "Non nobis, Domine non nobis, sed nomini Tuo gloriam."

LOUIS XIV. inundated Holland with an irresistible army, led by a host of celebrities, to find his arms arrested by the waters let loose upon him by the resolution of one young man, strong in faith and patriotism -- WILLIAM III., of Orange. FREDERICK the Great compared his own preparations and army, which invaded Austria in 1744, to the Spanish armada, and admitted that he felt as certain of reaching Vienna in triumph as PHILIP II. of capturing London. Autumn rains, tempestuous weather, cold, mud, and an unexpected adversary -- old TRAUN, Prince CHARLES of Lorraine's dry nurse, a consummate general -- had more to do with the overthrow of his hopes and projects than arms, battles or numbers. NAPOLEON rushed upon Russia with half a million of men, with as great a certainly of conquest as a lion leaps upon a buffalo, and two months of unexpected and unseasonable weather, of premature winter, strewed the route of his triumphant advance with the corpses, wrecks and trophies of such an armament as the world had never yet seen and, taking all attendant circumstances into account, among these "the pomp and circumstance of glorious war," the presence of tributary kings and ruling potentates, holding subordinate commands and massed in haughty display, with appropriate suites -- such, in this age when war is shorn of almost all its trappings -- as the world will never again behold.

But this is not all. History has often exemplified in actual life the fable of the mouse setting free and saving the lion in the toils. Plunging boldly forward through the fog, FREDERICK the Great owed his on fall and victory at Catholisch-Hernersdorf, 23d of November, 1745, to the skillful guidance of a miller's boy across a marsh, whereby he was enabled to surprise and cut to pieces the Saxons, unsuspecting an attack.

BONAPARTE crossing St. Bernard, owed his life to the presence of mind and prompt grasp of his peasant guide. A moment more and he would have fallen from his saddle in consequence of a misstep of his mule and plunged into a fatal abyss. Tapping the French line at Vittoria, 21st June, 1813, the English Generals were at a loss where and how to get across the Zadorra, when a Spanish countryman, a civilian, walked up to Lord DALHOUSIE and indicated an unguarded bridge. Over this passed a British column, pierced the French centre, and JOSEPH BONAPARTE's army broke up and fled, to use the expression of a French author, as the ice gives way in the Spring, and is hurried confusedly and tumultuously away by the impulse of a furious stream swollen by freshets.

BLUCHER, old Marshal Forwards, dear to Prussia and human liberty, spurring on to Waterloo, carrying on his men and material through mud and storm and fire, by the very force of his own will and energy, would, nevertheless, have been too late to annihilate NAPOLEON's army, and perhaps take part in the battle of the 18th of June, 1815, had not a shepherd's lad piloted him through a defile and brought his columns out just when they should have come into action, on the flank of, so fatally to the French.

The following corroboration is from "Sketches of Waterloo," published at Brussels, 1845, taken from WELLINGTON and BLUCHER's report, &c., and the Prussian General MUFFLING's "Reflections on Ligny and Waterloo:"

"By referring to the plan (accompanying,) the reader will see how well selected was the spot at which the Prussians issued from the woods. It was proposed to advance above Frischemont but the peasant who guided them objected to this, and proposed to descend lower down the vale, and penetrate nearer Plancenois, and more in the rear of the French reserves.

"Then," said he, "we shall take them all." The moment at which they arrived was most critical, and one shudders to think that this important affair depended on the knowledge and fidelity of a single peasant. Had he guided them wrong -- had he led them into a neighboring hollow-way, impassable to cannon -- or had BULOW's army come up one hour later, the British would have been compelled to retire."

In July, 1712, France was about exhausted in men and means. The allies had consumed army after army, and Prince EUGENE menaced the last fortress. Landrecy, which was the only place left to cover his provinces, and even his capital the only strong position between the allies' triumph and Paris. With about 100,000 men the Austrians held Landrecy by the throat, as GRANT holds Richmond, with the difference that VILLARS, with the last French army, was operating on the besieger's lines without, instead of being like LEE shut up within the place. EUGENE supposed that his lines were impregnable and VILLARS was very much of the same opinion. One day a priest and town counsellor of Douai, a neighboring place, were taking a walk for exercise and amusement in the neighborhood of the Austrian works, when they imagined that they had discovered a weak spot in the lines through which they could be easily forced toward Denain and Marchiennes. The counsellor made a report of what he had seen to the Intendant of Flanders, the latter communicated the news to Marshal MONTESQUIOU, who commanded under VILLARS, this officer to his chief. VILLARS approved of the suggestions, and immediately, made dispositions in accordance with the report of the priest and counsellor. The result was the remarkable surprise and wonderful victory of Denain, the relief of Landrecy, the defeat of Prince EUGENE and an almost absolute restoration of French affairs in this quarter. Thus the result of a simple promenade of two observing non-combatants, who had their senses about them, proved of incalculable importance in military affairs, and in reestablishing the fortunes of a tottering kingdom. Capt. L.D. * * * * *, Captain on the stuff of Prince EUGENE BEAUHARNIS, and author of an historical journal of the Viceroy's campaigns in Italy, 1813, 1814, mentions in that work that a subordinate staff officer and sub-prefect, i. e. employed in civil affairs, while alluding to the happy results which followed upon listening to the suggestions of the Douai priest and counsellor, himself proposed a plan to the Viceroy EUGENE which would compel the Austrians to relinquish their invasion of Italy. The military officers made sport of this volunteer plan of operations, and it appears to have thrown it aside as unworthy of soldiers' notice. Whether it was feasible or not can never be proved. Sufficeth, it was not acted upon, and instead of the Austrians being driven out of Italy by the French, the French were shortly after expelled therefrom by the Austrians.

Every reader of military history is aware that the battle of Vittoria decided the fate of the French usurpation of Spain in 1813. The battle-ground was an undulating circular plain, about eleven miles in diameter, surrounded by considerable mountains, traversed and cut up by the winding Zadorra, interspersed with broken ground, thickets and villages. The most important point in this decisive battle, was for the English to effect the passage of the river Zadorra. The French had taken measures to defend all the bridges at the menaced crossings. At the crisis of the day, WELLINGTON perceiving that the time had arrived for a decisive movement, ordered a simultaneous attack along the whole French line, The Light Division, belonging to the English right-centre, advanced, under cover of a thicket, upon the bridge of Vallora. At this critical moment, according to MAXWELL, "an intelligent Spaniard," whom ALLISON styles a "brave peasant," came up and brought information that the bridge of Tres Puentes was negligently guarded or undefended, and offered, himself, to guide the Light Division over it. This advice was acted upon, the bridge was seized, and, thus by the accidental appearance of a civilian, the fate of one of the greatest of the battles of NAPOLEON's Wars and of the Spanish kingdom, was decided against the French.

It has been reported that, in like manner, one of our corps on the night previous to the victory on South Mountain, was floundering in the dark, having lost its way, when it stumbled upon or met a loyal Maryland farmer, who not only piloted it on the proper road, but brought it into such a position as enabled it to act decisively against the enemy in the battle of the ensuing day.

It is very remarkable that many of the greatest ameliorations in the arts and sciences, but particularly those connected with military and naval affairs, in warlike movements and material, are due to the intelligence and research of laymen, or outsiders. It might be said that, in this country, with the exception of our RODMAN and DAHLGREN, the most practical improvements in ordnance and counter-ordnance -- so to speak -- are attributable to the inventive genius and experimental energy of parties not in the service, civilians, or noncombatants, as it were, possessed of quick perception, time at their own command, great intuitive and experimental mechanical turn or genius. In the same way, it has been set down as a fact, not controverted, it is believed, that the great naval manoeuvre of breaking, or cutting, the enemy's line, first practiced either by RODNEY, or else JERVIS, in the battles of one or the other, off Cape St. Vincent, was first conceived, planned, and suggested by a Scotch country laird, of whom it is also reported, that he had never served on chipboard, or seen the sea, except from his native shore. This principle of naval tactics was afterward the peculiar manoeuvre of the victorious NELSON. What is more, the idea of thrusting forward a column to pierce the breast of the enemy, who believes he already holds the assailant in the strangling grasp of both arms, which NAPOLEON carried to perfection, but most triumphantly exemplified at Austerlitz, was first inaugurated by the French Revolutionary Generals of 1793-1796, who, whatever amount of military education they had, almost simultaneously buckled on their swords, and seized the baton of leadership.

Not to make this article or list too long, the reader's attention will be directed to only two cases of mere civilians, whose labors in connection with military affairs have had a world-wide influence, and gave them, at the period in which they lived, a commensurate reputation. The first is SIMON STEVIN, the "Fleming" or "Dutchman," born at Bruges, in the Netherlands. He has the glory of sharing with [. ] in the revival of mechanics from the sleep of eighteen centuries into which it sank upon the death of ARCHIMEDES. If Prince MAURICE, it is conceded, was the author of the new birth of the military art and sciences, what must be said of that man who was his instructor in mathematics, especially as applied to engineering, except that in his case, as in so many others, the world or posterity knows nothing of its greatest men. He was the inaugurator of that system of wet fortifications, it may be said, which COHORN, "the Dutch Vauban," and "Prince of Engineers," perfected in the seventeenth century, and left so complete that it remains a perennial monument of his talents.

BENJAMIN ROBINS, born at Bath, England, in 1707, died at Madras in 1751, a victim to his labors in restoring the fortifications of the East India Company-Born like our CREENE, of Quaker parents, but unlike him in that he was never attached to the army, he excelled as a military engineer, ordnance officer and military mechanic. His "New Principles of Artillery," published in 1742, was thrice translated into French by different writers, the last time with profound notes, by the noted LOMBARD, himself bred a lawyer, Professor of Artillery at Metz and Auxonne.

These investigations invite further research, which would reveal still greater curiosities in war, and should teach professional men never to despise the suggestions or assistance of laymen in the branches to which the former have given the labors of their lives and believe themselves exports.

The moral of these considerations is manifold. These examples teach that he that putteth on his armor should not boast as he that putteth it off that although the North is gloriously successful, we must not lose sight of our dependence upon Providence, but act as a Christian nation should discharge its duty in accordance with His will, and looking to Him as the only giver of victory that those in power must not despise the suggestions of honest patriotic merit, but avail themselves of the best talent in the country wherever it shows itself, remembering the lesson of Ecclesiastes, in which Solomon cites:


The local sports club, the TSV 1861 Nördlingen, has a very successful basketball department with the men's and the women's team both in the Basketball Bundesliga. The clubs football team is traditionally the strongest side in northern Swabia. Its most successful former player is Gerd Müller, who was born and raised in Nördlingen. Its stadium was renamed in his honour in 2008.

The fairytale-ballet anime Princess Tutu is set in the fictional Kinkan Town, which is heavily based on Nördlingen.

Nördlingen was the town shown in Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory in 1971, when in the final scenes the glass elevator is floating over a town.


Battle of Nordlingen, (2), 3 August 1645 - History

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    Battle Name: White Mountain
    Date: November 8, 1620

    downloadable pdf print-and-play

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      Battle Date: November 1620
      Battle Name: White Mountain

      One of the four battles in this "quad"

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        Battle Name: Dirschau
        Battle Date: 1627

        One of five games in the "quintet"

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          Battle Name: Honigfelde / Trzciano
          Battle Date: 1629

          One of five games in the "quintet"

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            Battle Name: Breitenfield (or 1st Breitenfield)
            Battle Date: 1631

            This battle appeared in this, the SPI version of the quad but was not included in the DG release.

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              probably the reason DG did not include it in their Quad was because they did it here, in S&T

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                Battle Name: Breitenfield
                Battle Date: 1631

                One of five games in the "quintet"

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                  Battle Name: Lutzen
                  Battle Date: November 16, 1632

                  One of four games in this "quad"

                  Swedes are victorius over Wallenstein but Gustav Adolphus is killed.

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                    Battle Name: Lutzen
                    Battle Date: May 19, 1643

                    One of five games in the "quintet"

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                      Battle Name: Lutzen
                      Battle Date: May 19, 1643

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                        Battle Name: Alte Veste
                        Battle Date: 1632

                        One of five games in the "quintet"

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                          Battle Name: Nordlingen
                          Battle Date: August 27, 1634 (Julian cal.)

                          one of four games in this quad

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                            Battle Name: Nordlingen
                            Battle Date: 1634

                            one of four games in this quad by GMT

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                              Battle Name: Whittstock
                              Battle Date: 1634

                              one of four games in this quad by GMT

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                                Battle Name: Second Breitenfield
                                Battle Date: 1642

                                one of four games in this quad by GMT

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                                  Battle Name: Rocroi
                                  Battle Date: May 19, 1643

                                  one of four games in this quad

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                                      Battle Name: Rocroi
                                      Battle Date: May 19, 1943

                                      one of five games in this GMT quintet from the "Musket & Pike" series

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                                        Battle Name: Freiberg
                                        Battle Date: 1644

                                        This battle appeared in this, the SPI version of the quad but was not included in the DG release.

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                                          Battle Name: Freiberg
                                          Battle Date: 1644

                                          One of five battles in this quintet from GMT

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                                            Battle Name: Jankow
                                            Battle Date: 1645

                                            one of four games in this quad by GMT

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                                              Battle Name: Mergentheim
                                              Battle Date: 1645

                                              one of five games in this GMT quintet from the "Musket & Pike" series

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                                                Battle Name: Second Nordlingen or Allerheim
                                                Battle Date: August 3, 1645


                                                1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Mercy, Franz, Freiherr von

                                                MERCY (or Merci ), FRANZ, Freiherr von , lord of Mandre and Collenburg (d. 1645), German general in the Thirty Years War, who came of a noble family of Lorraine, was born at Longwy between 1590 and 1598. From 1606 to 1630 he was engaged in the imperial service, By the latter year he had attained high military rank, and after distinguishing himself at the first battle of Breitenfeld (1631) he commanded a regiment of foot on the Rhine and defended Rheinfelden against the Swedes with the utmost bravery, surrendering only after enduring a five-months' siege. He now became a general officer of cavalry (General-Feldwachtmeister), and in 1635, 1636 and 1637 took part in further campaigns on the Rhine and Doubs. In September 1638 he was made master-general of ordnance in the army of Bavaria, then the second largest army in Germany. In the next campaign he was practically commander-in-chief of the Bavarians, and at times also of an allied army of Imperialists and Bavarians. He was now considered one of the foremost soldiers in Europe, and was made general field marshal in 1643, when he won his great victory over the French marshal Rantzau at Tuttlingen (Nov. 24–25), capturing the marshal and seven thousand men. In the following year Mercy opposed the French armies, now under the duke of Enghien (afterwards the great Condé) and the vicomte de Turenne. He fought, and in the end lost, the desperate bat le of Freiburg, but revenged himself next year by inflicting upon Turenne the defeat of Mergentheim (Marienthal). Later in 1645, lighting once more against Enghien and Turenne, Mercy was killed at the battle of Nordlingen (or Allerheim) at the crisis of the engagement, which, even without Mercy's guiding hand, was almost a drawn battle. He died on the 3rd of August 1645. On the spot where he fell, Enghien erected a memorial, with the inscription Sta viator, heroem calcas.

                                                His grandnephew Claudius Florimond, Count Mercy de Villets (1666–1734), Imperial field marshal, son of his brother Kaspar, who fell at Freiburg, was born in Lorraine, and entered the Austrian army as a volunteer in 1682. He won his commission at the great battle of Vienna in the following year and during seven years of campaigning in Hungary rose to the rank of Rittmeister. A wound sustained at this time permanently injured his sight. For five years more, up to 1697, he was employed in the Italian campaigns, then he was called back to Hungary by Prince Eugene and won on the field of Zenta two grades of promotion. He displayed great daring in the first campaigns of the Spanish Succession War in Italy, twice fell into the hands of the enemy in fights at close quarters and for his conduct at the surprise of Cremona (Jan. 31, 1702) received the emperor's thanks and the proprietary colonelcy of a newly raised cuirassier regiment. With this he took part in the Rhine campaign of 1703, and the battle of Friedlingen, and his success as an intrepid leader of raids and forays became well known to friend and foe. He was on that account selected early in 1704 to harry the elector of Bavaria's dominions. He was soon afterwards promoted General-Feldwachtmeister, in which rank he was engaged in the battle of the Schellenberg (July 2, 1704). In the rest of the war he was often distinguished by his fiery courage. He rose to be general of cavalry in the course of these ten years. His resolute leadership was conspicuous at the battle of Peterwardein (1716) and he was soon afterwards made commander of the Banat of Temesvar. At the great battle of Belgrade (1717) he led the second line of left wing cavalry in a brilliant and decisive charge which drove the Turks to their trenches. After the peace he resumed the administration of the Banat, which after more than 150 years of Turkish rule needed a humane and capable governor. But before his work was done he was once more called away to a command in the field, this time in southern Italy, where he fought the battle of Francavilla (June 20, 1719), took Messina and besieged Palermo. For eleven years more he administered the Banat, reorganizing the country as a prosperous and civilized community. In 1734 he was made a general field marshal in the army, but on the 29th of June was killed at the battle of Parma while personally leading his troops. He left no children, and his name passed to Count Argenteau, from whom came the family of Mercy-Argenteau (see below).


                                                History

                                                The remains of a Roman castellum, built in the year 85 and probably called Septemiacum, have been found under the city. In 1998, Nördlingen celebrated its 1100-year-old history.

                                                Nördlingen was one of Germany’s major trading towns, until its importance declined with the battles of the Thirty Years’ War. In 1215 Emperor Frederick II declared Nördlingen a Free Imperial City, and it remained so until 1802 when it changed to become part of present-day Bavaria. The Nördlingen trade fair (Pfingstmesse) was first mentioned in 1219.

                                                A well-documented legal case of 1471 involved the prostitute Els von Eystett who worked in Nördlingen’s Frauenhaus, an officially sanctioned municipal brothel.

                                                Nördlingen was one of the first Protestant cities and took part in the Protestation at Speyer in 1529.

                                                In 1604 a shortened and simplified version of William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet was performed in Nördlingen this was one of the first performances of any Shakespearean play outside England.

                                                Nördlingen saw two major battles during the Thirty Years’ War: the Battle of Nördlingen (1634) and the Battle of Nördlingen (1645).


                                                Famous Birthdays

                                                Birthdays 1 - 100 of 721

                                                  Philippa of England, Queen of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, born in Peterborough Castle, Cambridgeshire (d. 1430)

                                                Christian II

                                                1481-07-01 Christian II, King of Denmark, Sweden and Norway, born in Nyborg Castle, Denmark (d. 1559)

                                                  Johannes Magnus, last Catholic Archbishop of Sweden (d. 1544) Gustav I of Sweden (1523-60), born in Rydboholm Castle, Sweden (d. 1560 Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg, Queen of Gustav I of Sweden, born in Ratzeburg, Germany (d. 1535) Margaret Leijonhufvud, Queen of Gustav I of Sweden (d. 1551) Catherine Jagellion, Polish princess and queen of Sweden as the wife of John III of Sweden, born in Kraków, Poland (d. 1583) Erik XIV, King of Sweden (1560-69), born in Stockholm (d. 1577) Katarina Stenbock, wife of Gustav I of Sweden (d. 1621) John III, King of Sweden (1568-92), born in Östergötland, Sweden (d. 1592) Charles IX, King of Sweden (1604-11), born in Stockholm Castle, Sweden (d. 1611) Karin Månsdotter, Queen of Sweden, born in Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1612) Laurentius Paulinus Gothus, Swedish theologian and astronomer, born in Söderköping, Sweden (d. 1646)

                                                Sigismund III Vasa

                                                1566-06-20 Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1587-1632) and King of Sweden (1592-99), born in Gripsholm Castle, Sweden (d. 1632)

                                                  Christina of Holstein-Gottorp, Queen consort of Sweden as the wife of King Charles IX, born in Kiel, Germany (d. 1625) Axel Gustafson Oxenstierna, Swedish earl/chancellor/regent Jacob De la Gardie, Swedish soldier and statesman (1st Governor-General of Swedish Livonia), born in Reval (Tallinn), Swedish Estonia (d. 1652) Caspar Bartholin the Elder, Danish physician, theologian, writer on anatomy, born in Malmö, Denmark (modern Sweden) (d. 1629) Gustaf Horn, Swedish soldier and politician, born in Örbyhus Castle, Uppland (d. 1657) Gustavus II Adolphus, King who made Sweden a major power (1611-32), born in Castle Tre Kronor, Sweden (d. 1632) Johan Banér, Swedish soldier (d. 1641) Georg Stiernhielm, Swedish scholar and poet often known as "father of Swedish poetry" (Hercules), born in Vika, Sweden (d. 1672) Per Brahe (the younger), Swedish soldier (d. 1680) Carl Gustaf Wrangel, Swedish soldier (d. 1676) Gustaf Bonde, Swedish statesman (d. 1667) Claes Rålamb, Swedish statesman, born in Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1698) Charles X Gustav, King of Sweden (1654-60), born in Nyköping Castle, Sweden (d. 1660) Christina, Queen of Sweden who abdicated after becoming Catholic (1644-54), born in Tre Kronor Castle, Stockholm (d. 1689) Pierre Verdier, French composer working in Sweden, born in Paris (d. 1706) Olof Rudbeck, Swedish scientist, writer and composer, born in Västerås (d. 1702) Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, Queen of Sweden by marriage to Charles X Gustav of Sweden (1654-60) (d. 1715) Johan Göransson Gyllenstierna, Swedish statesman (d. 1680) Lars Johnstown [Lasse Lucidor], Swedish poet Charles XI, King of Sweden (1660-97) Christopher Polhem, Swedish scientist and inventor (d. 1751) Lars Roberg, Swedish physician (d. 1742) Arvid Horn, Swedish statesman (d. 1742) Philip Christoph von Königsmarck, Swedish soldier (d. 1694) Magnus Julius De la Gardie, Swedish General and statesman, born in Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1741) Frederik I, van Hessen Kassel, King of Sweden (1720-51), born in Kassel, Germany (d. 1751) Johan Runius, Swedish poet (Dudaim) Hedvig Sophia, Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp, born in Three Crowns Castle, Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1708)

                                                Charles XII

                                                1682-06-17 Charles XII, King of Sweden (1697-1718), born in Tre Kronor, Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1718)

                                                  Jonas Alströmer, Swedish industrialist (d. 1761) Ulrika Eleonora, Queen of Sweden, born in Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1741) Emmanuel Swedenborg, Swedish religious leader (Angelic Wisdom) Ferdinand Zellbell the elder, Swedish composer (d. 1765) Georg Brandt, Swedish chemist and mineralogist, born in Riddarhyttan, Sweden (d. 1768) Johan Helmich Roman, Swedish composer, conductor and violinist, born in Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1758) Carl Gustaf Tessin, Swedish politician, born in Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1770) Niclas Sahlgren, Swedish merchant and philanthropist (d. 1776)

                                                Anders Celsius

                                                1701-11-27 Anders Celsius, Swedish astronomer (proposed the Celsius temperature scale), born in Uppsala, Sweden (d. 1744)

                                                Carolus Linnaeus

                                                1707-05-23 Carolus Linnaeus [Carl von Linné], Swedish botanist, explorer and the Father of Taxonomy, born in Råshult, Sweden (d. 1778)

                                                  Johan Gottschalk Wallerius, Swedish chemist and mineralogist, born in Stora Mellösa, Närke (d. 1785) Adolf Frederik, King of Sweden (1751-70) Pehr Kalm, Swedish explorer and naturalist (d. 1779) Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin, Swedish astronomer (d. 1783) Ferdinand Zellbell the younger, Swedish composer and co-founder of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music, born in Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1780) Charles De Geer, Swedish industrialist & entomologist, born in Finspång, Sweden (d. 1778) Louise Ulrike, queen of Sweden and wife of Adolf Frederik, born in Berlin, Germany (d. 1782) Carl Fredrik Pechlin, Swedish politician (d. 1796) Fredric Hasselquist, Swedish naturalist (d. 1752) Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, Swedish Chemist who discovered nickel and tungsten, born in Turinge, Sweden (d. 1765) Johan Wilcke, Swedish physicist, born in Wismar, Germany (d. 1796) Torbern Bergman, Swedish chemist (d. 1784) Johan Tobias Sergel, Swedish sculptor, born in Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1814) Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Swedish pharmacist and chemist (lemon acid), born in Stralsund, Swedish Pomerania (d. 1786) Sophia Magdalena of Denmark, Queen consort of Sweden, born in Christiansborg Palace, Copenhagen, Denmark (d. 1813) Carl Peter Thunberg, Swedish naturalist, born in Jönköping, Sweden (d. 1828)

                                                Gustav III

                                                1746-01-24 Gustav III, King of Sweden (1771-92), born in Stockholm (d. 1792)

                                                  Jacob Wallenberg, Swedish writer/naval chaplain Jonas C. Dryander, Swedish botanist (d. 1810) Charles XIII, King of Sweden (1809-18)/Norway (1814-18) Pehr Frigel, Swedish composer, born in Kalmar (d. 1842) Carl Stenborg, Swedish composer, born in Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1813) Axel von Fersen the Younger, Swedish Army officer, diplomat and statesman, born in Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1810) Bengt Lidner, Swedish poet (Medea, Yttersa Domen) Erik Acharius, Swedish botanist (lichens), born in Gävle, Sweden (d. 1819) Georg Carl von Döbeln, Swedish Lieutenant General and war hero, born in Stora Torpa, Västergötland, Sweden (d. 1820) Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp, Queen of Sweden and Norway (d. 1818) Charles XIV [Jean Bernadotte], King of Sweden & Norway (1818-44), Marshall of France, born in Pau, France (d. 1844) Frederick VI, Danish king (1808-39) lost Norway to Sweden (1814) Hans Järta, Swedish political activist (d. 1847) Désirée Clary, Queen of Sweden and Norway (1818-44), born in Marseille, France (d. 1860) Gustav IV Adolf, King of Sweden (1792-1809), born in Stockholm Palace, Sweden (d. 1837) Joachim Nicolas Eggert, Swedish violinist and composer, born in Ginst, Rügen Island (d. 1813) Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Swedish chemist, born in Linköping, Sweden (d. 1848) Frederica of Baden, Queen of Sweden (d. 1826) Esaias Tegnér, Swedish writer (Frithjof's Saga), born in Kyrkerud, Sweden (d. 1846) Erik Gustaf Geijer, Swedish historian/poet (Natthimmelen) Carl Adolph Agardh, Swedish botanist & bishop of Karlstad, born in Båstad, Sweden (d. 1859) Arvid August Afzelius, Swedish poet and historian, born in Fjällåkra, Sweden (d. 1871) Erik Drake, Swedish composer (Royal Swedish Academy of Music), born on Föllingsö, Östergötland (d. 1870) Johan Erik Nordblom, Swedish composer, born in Uppsala, Sweden (d. 1848) Edmund Passy, Swedish composer, born in Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1870) Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom, Swedish romantic poet (Blommorna (The Flowers), Lycksalighetens Ö (The Island of Bliss)) and historian (Svenska Siare och Skalder), born in Åsbo, Sweden (d. 1855) Johan August Arfwedson, Swedish chemist (d. 1841) Carl Jonas Love Almquist, Swedish composer (Tornrosens Buck), born in Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1866) Elias M. Fries, Swedish botanist (System mycologicum), born in Femsjö, Sweden (d. 1878)
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                                                Aftermath

                                                The Thirty Years War had been both a crucible for lasting hatreds and a useful laboratory for the testing and development of new technology and tactics.

                                                Trouble at Home and with Spain

                                                In France the easing of external threats allowed domestic discontents to boil over in the popular rebellion known as the Fronde. Spain - still at war with France - took the opportunity to take back Catalonia and other captured territories. This injected new acrimony into the Franco-Spanish War, which went unresolved until 1659.

                                                Tactical Advances

                                                Tactics witnessed in the Thirty Years War were exploited by France's Louis XIV in the series of wars he fought from 1661. They were also used in England in Cromwell's war with the Stuart Crown.


                                                Watch the video: Battle of Nördlingen 1634 Thirty Years War (May 2022).