Interesting

Fighting with the Desert Rats, Major H.P. Samwell MC

Fighting with the Desert Rats, Major H.P. Samwell MC


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Fighting with the Desert Rats, Major H.P. Samwell MC

Fighting with the Desert Rats, Major H.P. Samwell MC

An Infantry Officer's War with the Eighth Army

Major H.P Samwell was an infantry officer in the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders during the last part of the campaign in North Africa, arriving just before the Battle of El Alamein and taking part in the advance to Tripoli, the battles in Tunisia and the post-invasion occupation of Sicily. The book was written during the Second World War, and sadly Samwell was killed early in 1945, so never had any chance to revise his work.

Samwell gives us a good feel for the confusion and chaos of the battlefield. Even the best laid plans can break down, and there are several occasions when he ended up wandering lost across the desert trying to find his men or the right place to stop and defend. We also get a view of most parts of the Eighth Army. Samwell was wounded at El Alamein, so we see the hospital system, Cairo and the whole area behind the lines as he recovered and then had to make his way to the front. He only reports what he knew at the time, so we get a vivid impression of the fighting as seen by a junior officer at the time.

Samwell has some very negative views of parts of the British army. He was hugely unimpressed by the army in Cairo and most of the areas behind the lines, where he found affairs to be organised for the comfort of the rear area officers, rather than to support the fighting men. The occupation authorities on Sicily also failed to impress, especially when compared to the American sector.

Samwell was always curious about the views of the various factions in North Africa, so he took the time to question members of the French, American, Italian, Egyptian, Arab and Jewish communities as he met them. There is a fascinating pair of interviews about Jewish settlement in Palestine, giving opposing viewpoints, while his impression of the faction-ridden French community is of great valuable. This is a fascinating memoir, with a real freshness, providing a unusual view of the fighting in North Africa.

Chapters
I - I Embark
II - First impressions of Egypt and its war-time population
III - I join the Eighth Army
IV - The Battle of El Alamein
V - The attack is renewed
VI - In a South African Hospital
VII - In Cairo
VIII - At the Infantry Training Depot and up the Line
IX - From Sirte to Tripoli
X - Resting in Tripoli
XI - Early Days in Front of the Mareth Line
XII - Rommel Attacks
XIII - Patrols and Keeps
XIV -Hospital in Tripoli
XV - Up the Line again
XVI - Left out of battle
XVII - Resting in Sfax
XVIII- Enfidaville and the end of the campaign
XIX - Journey through Algeria
XX - Training for sea invasion
XXII - Following the Sicily campaign from an African base
XXIII - Problems of occupation
XXIV - The lighter side of life on detachment
XXV - Leave in Palermo
Epilogue

Author: Major H.P. Samwell MC
Edition: Hardcover
Pages: 224
Publisher: Pen & Sword Military
Year: 2013



Fighting with the Desert Rats, Major H.P. Samwell MC - History

Josef &ldquoSepp&rdquo Allerberger was the second most successful sniper of the German Wehrmacht and one of the few private soldiers to be honored with the award of the Knight&rsquos Cross.

An Austrian conscript, after qualifying as a machine gunner he was drafted to the southern sector of the Russian Front in July 1942. Wounded at Voroshilovsk, he experimented with a Russian sniper-rifle while convalescing and so impressed his superiors with his proficiency that he was returned to the front on his regiment&rsquos only sniper specialist.

In this sometimes harrowing memoir, Allerberger provides an excellent introduction to the commitment in field craft, discipline and routine required of the sniper, a man apart. There was no place for chivalry on the Russian Front. Away from the film cameras, no prisoner survived long after surrendering. Russian snipers had used the illegal explosive bullet since 1941, and Hitler eventually authorized its issue in 1944. The result was a battlefield of horror.

Allerberger was a cold-blooded killer, but few will find a place in their hearts for the soldiers of the Red Army against whom he fought.


Fighting with the Desert Rats, Major H.P. Samwell MC - History

This is a descriptive account of what it was like to serve as an Infantry Officer with the Desert Army in the Western Desert and Sicily between 1942 and 1943.

The author is Major H.P. Samwell, MC, who was unfortunately killed on 13 January 1945, whilst serving with the 7th Battalion Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, 51st Highland Division.

FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF EGYPT AND ITS WARTIME POPULATION * JOINING THE EIGHTH ARMY
THE BATTLE OF EL ALAMEIN * THE ATTACK IS RENEWED *

IN A SOUTH AFRICAN HOSPITAL (The author was very badly wounded during the fighting, an event he graphically describes &ndash along with lying in a trench, with an injured German soldier, awaiting rescue)

AT THE INFANTRY TRAINING DEPOT AND UP THE LINE * FROM SIRTE TO TRIPOLI * EARLY DAYS IN FRONT OF THE MARETH LINE * ROMMEL ATTACKS * PATROLS AND KEEPS * HOSPITAL IN TRIPOLI

UP THE LINE AGAIN * RESTING IN SFAX * ENFIDAVILLE AND THE END OF THE CAMPAIGN *
TRAINING FOR SEA INVASION (Sicily) * FOLLOWING THE SICILY CAMPAIGN FROM AN AFRICAN BASE
LANDING IN SICILY AND MOVE TO MESSINA * PROBLEMS OF OCCUPATION

About The Author

JOHN GREHAN has written, edited or contributed to more than 300 books and magazine articles covering a wide span of military history from the Iron Age to the recent conflict in Afghanistan. John has also appeared on local and national radio and television to advise on military history topics. He was employed as the Assistant Editor of Britain at War Magazine from its inception until 2014. John now devotes his time to writing and editing books.

Martin Mace has been involved in writing and publishing military history for more than twenty-five years. He began his career with local history, writing a book on the Second World War anti-invasion defences and stop lines in West Sussex. Following the success of this book, he established Historic Military Press, which has published a wide range of titles. In 2006 he began working on the idea for Britain at War Magazine, the first issue of which went on sale in May 2007. This publication has grown rapidly to become the best-selling military history periodical on the high street. Martin now devotes his time to writing and editing books.


Eagles over the Sea, 1943-45

This is the second volume of Lawrence Paterson&rsquos detailed account of all the Luftwaffe&rsquos naval operations during World War II. The first volume took the story up to 1942, and by the end of that year Hermann Göring&rsquos Reich Air Ministry had subsumed nearly every aspect of Wehrmacht maritime aviation. Kriegsmarine attempts to develop an independent Fleet Air Arm had been perpetually frustrated, reflecting the chaotic nature of the Third Reich&rsquos internal military and political mechanics.

Driven more by vanity than operational prudence, the Luftwaffe had continually thwarted the advancement of maritime aviation, and by 1942 began to reap the whirlwind it had created. The U-boat war hung precariously in the balance, the lack of well trained and properly equipped aerial reconnaissance suddenly assuming greater importance than ever before. During 1943 the nature of Germany&rsquos war mutated and by its close the Allies were on the offensive in nearly all theatres. This volume resumes the story with Operation Torch in November 1942, when Germany faced an Allied seaborne invasion of North Africa that it was ill-equipped to counter by land, sea or air and the spectre of even greater invasion armadas loomed on both the southern and western fronts during the months that followed. Facing the Russians, maritime air units were stripped to the bone, those precious few formations available shunted rapidly between military crisis points until barely able to function. The rise of Luftwaffe maritime operations described in the author&rsquos first volume now became, from 1942 onwards, a fall of catastrophic proportions as frequently undertrained crews flew increasingly obsolete aircraft against odds that had become overwhelming. The Luftwaffe was paying the price for its pre-war lack of cohesive strategic planning, none more so than its beleaguered maritime specialists. The author covers this story across all the theatres of the war and in doing so gives the reader a complete and coherent picture of all the Luftwaffe&rsquos naval operations.

Heavily illustrated throughout, this detailed and exciting narrative will be of huge appeal to both naval and aviation historians and enthusiasts.


We Will Meet Again

The standard phrase when the villain finds that he has been defeated by the heroes and there is no point in staying around with the immediate Evil Plan foiled.

In effect, the villain shows a Determinator streak and threatens the heroes that he will return to fight them again, and he is sure that he will defeat them next time.

If the villain is in a more poetic mood, they might say their parting words with, "He who fights and runs away/Lives to fight another day." Other variants include: "I'm not finished with you," "This isn't over," "You think you've won!" and "You haven't seen the last of me!" In anime and other Japanese media, the common phrase of the defeated is "Remember me/us!".

Oftentimes, the heroes will respond confidently, "We'll be waiting!" (He obviously has never heard of Villain Decay.)

In some rare cases, the villain with Medium Awareness might breach the Fourth Wall by saying: "I'll get you next week", if it's a weekly series. The hero is usually not too concerned.

Also the standard exit of the Enigmatic Minion during his 'I am not here to fight you today' appearances.

Here is a compilation with a lot of examples of the "You Haven't Seen the Last of Me!" quote.


Release Week: Dark Eden, Desert of Souls, Reign of Ash, Games Creatures Play, Tales of the Radiation Age, Salvage, and Ian McDonald’s Desolation Road and Cyberabad Days

MARCH 26-APRIL 1, 2014: A fantastic range of releases this week, from a 2012-UK-published novel of mind-bending interplanetary science fiction finally getting a US release, to epic fantasy, a big-name paranormal fantasy anthology, post-apocalyptic sf, to near-future sf for young/new adults, and some long-missing audiobooks from Ian McDonald’s backlist. Also out this week: Scott Sigler’s Galactic Football League, Steven Erikson’s The Bonehunters (Book 6 in his Malazan Book of the Fallen), a new audiobook edition of David Saperstein’s sf classic Cocoon, Lemony Snicket, fiction novels Frog Music and Every Day is For the Thief, and more. There are also some fantastic-looking books in the “seen but not heard” listings, including Felix Gilman’s The Revolutions, Katherine Addison’s The Goblin Emperor, and Teodor Reljic’s Two, along with a pair of essay collections as well: Battle Royale Slam Book, and the Gerry Canavan and Kim Stanley Robinson-edited essay anthology Green Planets: Ecology and Science Fiction. Lastly, a bit of administrivia to take care of here: I’ve been copypasting the full “coming soon” listings like a massive, unending hydrocarbon chain every week, and otherwise not saying much about what’s going on down there. With this week, I’m starting a new routine of identifying new entries of interest. This week’s additions are headlined by a new Kingkiller Chronicle novella from Patrick Rothfuss, “The Slow Regard of Silent Things”, due out in November, and Nightmare Carnival edited by Ellen Datlow, due out in October. Meanwhile, the big non-release audiobook news for me is the casting of Monica Byrne’s The Girl in the Road with narrators Dioni Collins and Nazneen Contractor, and the big book news of the week is the announcement of a new series from Tad Williams, continuing his beloved “Memory, Sorry, Thorn” series. Enjoy!

PICKS OF THE WEEK:

Dark Eden: A Novel b y Chris Beckett , narrated by Matthew Frow, Jayne Entwistle, Ione Butler, Robert Hook, Heather Wilds, Nicholas Guy Smith, Hannah Curtis, and Bruce Mann (April 1) is a BSFA-nominated 2012 novel which came strongly recommended to me from Steven Erikson, and I’ve been looking for a US release ever since. Well, here it is, given a full cast treatment by Random House Audio. “On the alien, sunless planet they call Eden, the 532 members of the Family shelter beneath the light and warmth of the Forest’s lantern trees. Beyond the Forest lie the mountains of the Snowy Dark and a cold so bitter and a night so profound that no man has ever crossed it. The Oldest among the Family recount legends of a world where light came from the sky, where men and women made boats that could cross the stars. These ships brought us here, the Oldest say – and the Family must only wait for the travelers to return.”

The Desert of Souls: Dabir & Asim, Book 1 b y Howard Andrew Jones is the author’s 2011 sword-and-sorcery debut set in 8th century Baghdad, also at long last in audio, read by Peter Ganim for Audible. “ In 8th-century Baghdad, a stranger pleads with the vizier to safeguard the bejeweled tablet he carries, but he is murdered before he can explain. Charged with solving the puzzle, the scholar Dabir soon realizes that the tablet may unlock secrets hidden within the lost city of Ubar, the Atlantis of the sands. When the tablet is stolen from his care, Dabir and Captain Asim are sent after it, and into a life-and-death chase through the ancient Middle East. Stopping the thieves – a cunning Greek spy and a fire wizard of the Magi – requires a desperate journey into the desert, but first Dabir and Asim must find the lost ruins of Ubar and contend with a mythic, sorcerous being that has traded wisdom for the souls of men since the dawn of time. But against all these hazards there is one more that may be too great even for Dabir to overcome….”

Reign of Ash is Book Two in the Ascendant Kingdoms Saga by Gail Z. Martin, out in print/ebook from Orbit and concurrently in audio from Recorded Books read by Tim Gerard Reynolds. A follow-on to Ice Forged, Reign of Ash (excerpt) continues the story of Blaine McFadden, “the last living Lord of the Blood, endured six years in the brutal Velant prison colony, exiled for murder”, who has returned “to a lawless wasteland, where unrestrained magic storms wreak havoc and monsters roam the ruins.” Reynolds is as always a fantastic narrator, particularly well cast in epic fantasy (as he is on Michael J. Sullivan’s Riyria books) and there’s no exception to that here.

Games Creatures Play edited by Charlaine Harris and Toni L. P. Kelner, n arrated by Todd Haberkorn and Kate Rudd for Brilliance Audio, is a new paranormal fantasy anthology with authors both familiar to that genre (Charlaine Harris, Seanan McGuire) and ones with a bit less experience there (Brandon Sanderson) all taking a look at sports and games. “ Welcome to the wide world of paranormal pastimes, where striking out might strike you dead. Editors Charlaine Harris and Toni L. P. Kelner are your announcers for this all-new story collection of the most peculiar plays ever made. Sports fans live and die by their teams’ successes and failures—though not literally. But these fourteen authors have written spirited—in more ways than one—new tales of killer competitions that would make even the most die-hard players ask to be benched.”

Tales of the Radiation Age by Jason Sheehan, read by Nick Podehl (Brilliance Audio, March 26, 2014) was published first as a Kindle Serial in 2013 and came to paperback in late February 2014 from 47North. While I wasn’t the most blown away by Sheehan’s A Private Little War, his recent non-fiction (reviews for NPR in particular) have me interested in checking him out again, and with narrator Podehl at the helm, all the more interested. “In a post-apocalyptic America that has shattered into a hundred perpetually warring fiefdoms, anyone with a loud voice and a doomsday weapon can be king (and probably has been). Duncan Archer—con man, carpetbagger, survivor—has found a way to somehow successfully navigate the end of the world, with its giant killer robots, radioactive mutants, mad scientists, rampant nanotechnology, armed gangs, sea monsters, and 101 unpleasant ways to die.”

Salvage by Alexandra Duncan is the Asheville, NC author’s debut — though she’s quite familiar to readers of short fiction through her stories in F&SF — out from Greenwillow, a YA imprint of HarperCollins, and read by Johanna Parker for Harper Audio. “A thrilling, surprising, and thought-provoking debut novel that will appeal to fans of Across the Universe, by Beth Revis, and The Handmaid’s Tale, by Margaret Atwood. This is literary science fiction with a feminist twist, and it explores themes of choice, agency, rebellion, and family. Ava, a teenage girl living aboard the male-dominated, conservative deep space merchant ship Parastrata, faces betrayal, banishment, and death. Taking her fate into her own hands, she flees to the Gyre, a floating continent of garbage and scrap in the Pacific Ocean. This is a sweeping and harrowing novel about a girl who can’t read or write or even withstand the forces of gravity. What choices will she make? How will she build a future on an earth ravaged by climate change? Named by the American Booksellers Association as a Spring 2014 Indies Introduce Pick.” I’m less familiar with narrator Parker than many listeners will be — she’s been the voice of Charlaine Harris’ Sookie Stackhouse series for more than a decade.

Lastly, Irish sf author Ian McDonald’s backlist has been getting quite the audiobook workout already this year, and this week brings both Cyberabad Days — his 2009 collection of short fiction set in the India of 2047 — and his two Mars-set “Desolation Road” novels to audio. First, Cyberabad Days, n arrated by Jonathan Keeble: “The world: ‘Cyberabad’ is the India of 2047, a new, muscular superpower of one and a half billion people in an age of artificial intelligences, climate-change induced drought, water-wars, strange new genders, genetically improved children that age at half the rate of baseline humanity and a population where males out-number females four to one. India herself has fractured into a dozen states from Kerala to the headwaters of the Ganges in the Himalayas.”

McDonald’s Desolation Road was first published in 1988, winning the Locus Poll Award for best first novel and nominated for the Arthur C. Clarke Award after its UK publication in 1989. Re-published in 2009 by editor Lou Anders at Pyr (with the amazing new covers above, by Stephan Martiniere, sadly the audiobook covers from Audible are really quite sub-par) they’re finally in audio, with Desolation Road read by David Thorpe and Ares Express read by Lorna Bennett. “It all began thirty years ago on Mars, with a greenperson. But by the time it all finished, the town of Desolation Road had experienced every conceivable abnormality from Adam Black’s Wonderful Travelling Chautauqua and Educational ‘Stravaganza (complete with its very own captive angel) to the Astounding Tatterdemalion Air Bazaar. Its inhabitants ranged from Dr. Alimantando, the town’s founder and resident genius, to the Babooshka, a barren grandmother who just wants her own child—grown in a fruit jar from Rajendra Das, mechanical hobo who has a mystical way with machines to the Gallacelli brothers, identical triplets who fell in love with—and married—the same woman.”


Shout-Out/Video Games

This page lists Shout-Outs seen in video games.

Games with their own pages:

  • 3D Dot Game Heroes
  • Ace Attorney
  • Alan Wake
  • Asterix & Obelix XXL 2: Mission: Las Vegum
  • Asuras Wrath
  • Bayonetta
  • Billy vs. SNAKEMAN
  • Binary Domain
  • Borderlands
  • Capcom vs. Whatever
  • Conker's Bad Fur Day
  • Dead Rising
    • Dead Rising 2
    • Blaz Blue
    • Resident Evil 5

    Creators with their own pages:

    • 2027: Daniel mentions in a conversation that War. war never changes.
    • The Irem In the Hunt video game is basically a giant shout-out to the Sega Master System II game Submarine Attack. Both feature Superior Firepower Missile Submarines that also have Superior Firepower Surface to Air Missiles and produce major missileBeam Spam. They have a similar number of levels and similar enemies. The boss that drops parts of an ancient ruin on top of you exists in both games, too.
    • Metal Slug has a reference to one of the bosses in R-Type. Just look at the similarity between the stage 5 boss from Metal Slug 7 and the stage 4 boss of the original R-Type here (the cores are highlighted for your convenience). The ending of Metal Slug X resembles the ending of Independence Day.
      • It also has one to the game In the Hunt by the same developers - The Slug Mariner has the exact same color scheme as the Granvia. , the Final Boss of Metal Slug 7 bears more than a passing resemblance to the Dual Boss of In the Hunt.
      • Each level has a movie poster, shown during the credits (or in the Brady Games guide) they are, in order: Dracula, King Kong, Jaws, The Hunt for Red October, Devil May Cry, Gladiator, and Star Wars (the original)
        • They even have text references to the movies (or game) they come from.
        • Baldur's Gate itself has a set of more low-key shout-outs, with the spider-queen Centeol being a mocking shout-out at a player in the game writer's old Dungeons and Dragons campaign who exclusively played tall, strikingly-beautiful amazons names Centeol. Edwin was a much better-liked character from the same gaming group.
        • In Neverwinter Nights 2: Mask of the Betrayer you can find an item named the Astral Rodent Charm. With the inscription "To M. " on the back. A shout out to Minsc and his miniature giant space hamster.
          • The vanilla original Neverwinter Nights had a reference to an Archdruid named Getafix.
          • A Dance With Rogues, a fan module series, includes the premade character Lyanna Stormborn, as a Shout-Out to A Song of Ice and Fire (which actually did inspire a lot of the story). The player's adventures seem somewhat similar to those of Arya Stark, after all.
          • In the ending to Original Generation 2: several members of the team are re-assigned to a remote base in Russia called Gandum. Ryusei seems to find the name awfully familiar. Earlier in the game, Masaki gives another character the nickname of "Comet", as she's The Rival of a third character known as "Shooting Star", and happens to be piloting a red fighter. One of Masaki's cats starts to say "So should we call you the Red. ", but is interrupted before she can complete her sentence. This sure sounds familliar to some rivalry in a Humongous Mecha show. As well, Excellen accidentally refers to the machine Calion as the "Galion". Galeon is the name of the lion that turns into GaoGaiGar.
          • In Original Generations, Excellen Browning shows her own brand of nerdiness, especially when she references Back to The Future.
          • In games where they appear together, Amuro Ray and Misato Katsuragi flirt constantly, a reference to the fact that their voice actors played Usagi and Mamoru in Sailor Moon.
            • As well, many characters will note how they sound similar to other characters.
            • One of the major characters is named Atlas. Another is coyly named Andrew Ryan.
            • There are a number of posters plastered around saying "Who is Atlas?".
            • Fontaine in his final mutated form resembles the famous statue of Atlas as seen on the cover of Atlas Shrugged.
            • Each bottle of Arcadia Merlot is embossed with the name "Fountainhead Cabarnet Sauvignon," as in The Fountainhead, another of Rand's novels.
            • Sander Cohen may be a reference to the pre-WWI playwright, songwriter, dancer, and director George M. Cohen. Sander Cohen and George M. Cohen both have a similar appearance and a similar way of criticizing people who do not perform a piece perfectly. However, George is less likely to kill you for it.
            • Non-Rand: One of the books in the library is titled Headology.
            • "Would you kindly find a crowbar or something?"
            • In the sequel one of the posters looks extremely like the usual cover of The Great Gatsby.
            • Elite (a major influence on Escape Velocity) also calls its two lowest combat ratings "Harmless" and "Mostly Harmless".
            • Escape Velocity Nova has a randomly-occurring Leviathan-class ship called CATS. Its picture in the communication dialog is the portrait of CATS from the Zero Wing opening, and its lines of dialog are also from the Zero Wing opening.
              • Also Raczak's Roughnecks (the animated one).
              • The police contacts in almost every city zone are thinly-disguised versions of famous TV cops, including characters from Dragnet, Due South, and Miami Vice.
                • And RoboCop.
                • Even better, one of the types of Enhancements is the actual Oscillation Over-thruster itself. It makes your Phasing powers better.
                • Diablo II, in the Expansion PackLord of Destruction, has a late game boss fight against three Barbarian Ancients. The barbarians in this game have a very Norse-inspired culture. The three ancients bear a strong resemblance to Olaf the Stout, Erik the Swift and Baleog the Fierce, the three Lost Vikings of the early Blizzard platform puzzle game by the same name.
                  • World of Warcraft has a similar reference. One of the miniboss encounters in Ulduman, you fight three dwarves that are named after the three Lost Vikings.
                  • In From The New World, a convict named Smith in Alcatraz asks you to spread a message to his ally Murdock. Murdock tells you to give the message to Peck, and Peck asks you to send the message to Baracus. Sound familiar?
                  • Another in From The New World: The Erick Theatre on Chelsea in New York City is showing The Phantom of the Opera.
                  • In fact, every Lucas ArtsAdventure Game was filled with shout outs to Lucas' movies and to other adventure games. Some of these even became running gags in their own right, such as Chuck the Plant or "I'm selling these fine leather jackets."
                    • Chuck the plant, which originated in Maniac Mansion, has become famous enough to have cameos in other non-Lucas Arts games, such as The Elder Scrolls III Morrowind and Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney. plant is named Charlemagne.
                    • In the second Max Payne game there is a billboard advertising a kung fu movie starring Kenneth Yeung. In real life, Kenneth Yeung is the creator of the Kung Fu mod for the first Max Payne game.
                    • Kano Kirishima's entire set of spells is directly lifted from the Mage and Wizard classes in the MMORPG Ragnarok Online. Her staff is an actual item from the game (Mighty Staff)
                    • . and Fallout 2 has a special encounter where you meet Brotherhood of Steel paladins searching for said item.
                      • Also, the "Holy Orbs of Antioch" used by the Black Templars in Warhammer 40000.
                      • Really, Fallout 2 deserves its own entry. after all, you can encounter a crashed Star Trek shuttle at one point.
                      • An easily-missed line of dialogue from the endgame is "Oh my God, They Killed Kenny!"
                      • World At War featured a few, too. The mission "Vendetta" was chock-full of shoutouts to Enemy at the Gates, like the fountain scene and the general theme (Soviet sniper tracks down an evil Nazi officer in Stalingrad). The very first mission also features an amusing reference to Saving Private Ryan, in the form of an NPC named (as you can probably imagine) "Private Ryan", whom you can "save" from a suicidal Japanese soldier. The joke is a multi-layered one, as your player character's name is "Miller", just like the movie's protagonist.
                      • The original game includes a lot of levels as (somewhat loose) homages to various classic war movies: the D-Day levels all draw from The Longest Day, the Americans clearly reenact The Dirty Dozen, and Enemy At The Gates gets pulled out for Stalingrad again. The expansion adds Band of Brothers and The Guns of Navarone to the list.
                      • Modern Warfare 2, meanwhile, features a firefight in what is pretty blatantly the shower room from The Rock.
                      • In an internal shout out, Nethack also features the infamous shopkeeper Izchak, a formerTrope Namer. Izchak Miller was a member of the development team who worked on a lot of the shopkeeper coding.
                      • When you're hallucinating, you're especially prone to seeing shout outs the hallucinated monsters include Vorlons, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, the Ravenous Bugblatter Beast of Traal, Totoro, Klingons, and more.
                      • In GTA 3, the Triad gangsters sometimes say "Do you feel lucky, punk?" And the Spanked Up Madmen in "Kingdom Come" are a shout-out to the Simulacrums from Marathon.
                      • If you really want to be thorough, the series is going to need a page of its own, because the abovementioned examples are just a tip of the iceberg. Nearly every GTA game has multiple shouts outs to various aspects of pop culture and the developers themselves.
                      • In the original, you find a bus parked near the station in Fort Law. There's a bomb on the bus. Once the bus goes 50 mph, the bomb is armed. If it drops below 50, it blows up. What do you do?
                      • San Andreas also has a reference to the original Half Life, inside Area 69, which bears a striking resemblance to the Black Mesa Research Facility, complete with Gordon Freeman's crowbar sitting on a table.
                      • There are several other Killer7 references as well. Bad Girl has a "chiller7" brand fridge, and the techniques Lovikov teaches you bear names that refer to the Smiths. ("Memory of Mask": MASK DE Smith, "Memory of Child": Con Smith, "Memory of Demon": Dan Smith, etc.)
                      • Not to mention the numerous Star Wars references, ranging from laser sword based combat to mooks dressed in Darth Vader costumes to the end-of-mission congratulatory screen, which sports a thematic pastiche of the Star Wars theme and ends with the famous hyperspace visual effect from the movies.
                      • There's even one to God Hand. Lose a Blade Lock clash against Rank 4 and he turns Travis' beam katana into a powerless, heart-topped wand. Players of God Hand will recognize it as Shannon's weapon of choice.
                        • Also, the final boss has a similar fighting style to God Hand's Gene, a similar dodging animation, and is called "Jeane" .
                        • Zaka TV also makes an appearance in Killer 7
                        • It's the poisonous frog that you trap on one of the islands. Shout-Out or Take That?
                        • Magus' three main henchmen were named, in the English translation, "Ozzie", "Slash", and "Flea"!
                        • One of the cavemen in 65,000,000 B.C. will say "Happy happy, joy joy" after the Reptites go extinct .
                        • One of the chapters of Chrono Trigger is Forward to the Past. Another in Japanese translates to The Call of Lavos.
                        • Biggs and Wedge first appeared in Final Fantasy VI. There were many other Star Warsshout outs.
                          • When playing as Locke in South Figaro, entering Celes's cell while wearing a soldier outfit will result in a shout-out to the "Aren't you a little short for a stormtrooper?" line.
                          • Likewise in Year of the Dragon, in the level 'Desert Ruins', there's an explorer called Tara, who is a not-so-subtle parody of Lara Croft. Not only does she have large. bazoomas, when she sees Spyro, she complains that she spends "all day moving crates, and pushing switches", only for someone else to come and steal her treasure.
                            • Another example from Year of the Dragon would be one of Shelia the Kangaroo's stages. Unlike the rest of the game, it's almost completely viewed from the side. Its name? 'Krash Kangaroo.
                            • And the first-person shooter section with goals entitled, 'You're Doomed!' and 'You're Still Doomed!'.
                            • Another one from the same game. Moneybags claims that Sgt. Byrd is pining for the fjords. Not that children would get that one.
                              • The script writers were apparently fans of British comedy: the Sorceress' dialogue includes a line which blends catchphrases from Dads Army and Allo Allo, as part of a scene which introduces a character modeled after British aerial aces from World War II.
                              • Dragon Quest also has a monster called a Slimeborg. Resistance is futile.
                              • Also, the two pets in the game are a dog and a cat named Sam and Max. The dog is the one named Sam. Also, the protagonist of "Romancing Meowzilla" was a character in Ouendan, the game EBA was based on.
                              • In addition, there are a couple of easy-to-miss cameos made by Link and Samus.
                              • The game also has references to several Final Fantasy elements, considering Squaresoft helped make the game. Culex, a Bonus Boss, has a battle theme, victory theme, and prelude all in the style of Final Fantasy IV.
                                • The game also has a less obvious shout-out to Final Fantasy in the form of one late-game boss the Czar Dragon and its undead counterpart Zombone. They take their names from two enemies from Final Fantasy VI, although the former was Dummied Out.
                                • Culex also has a fire crystal, a water crystal, an earth crystal, and a wind crystal, recalling the crystals from Final Fantasy I, Final Fantasy IV, and Final Fantasy V.
                                • Super Paper Mario is in fact full of Shout Outs to other series - the Underchomp battle plays like a Dragon Quest battle (but may also be a reference to Earthbound), the Pits of 100 Trials resemble a Game & Watch display, and the Mansion Patrol minigame is a fairly obvious reference to Luigis Mansion. and her Transformation Sequences appear to be shout-outs to both The Exorcist and The Thing.
                                • A ROM combo involving Castlevania will make your whip more powerful.
                                • Two ROM combinations let you play parodies of Parodius and Snatcher.
                                • Combining the two Metal Gear ROMs will make a "!" appear over you when you solve a puzzle.
                                • Many of Elder Xelpud's seemingly-nonsensical quotes allude to MSX games:

                                 "With my spare money, all I could buy was Salamander. I always got the bad ending." (In the MSX Salamander, you need to have Nemesis 2 in the second cartridge slot to get the good ending.)

                                "Up, up, down, down, left, right, left, right, B A. What's that?" (none of Konami's MSX games uses the Konami code, which originated on NES/Famicom games, and Xelpud is a staunch Famicom hater).

                                "I wonder what happened to Venom? I haven't seen him since I heard him laughing while in a time slip. I certainly hope he's doing well." (Venom is the Big Bad of the MSX Nemesis 2 and 3, and the ending of Nemesis 3 has the protagonist fleeing from him in a time warp.)

                                "I can't believe that Simon is a model pervert." (Simon Belmont is described that way in the MSX mahjong game Hai no Majutsushi, also known as Mahjong Wizard.

                                  • The Bragging Rights Punishment is a Shout-Out to Dragon Quest II. Yes.
                                  • One fish enemy in the Spring in the Sky has an iron pipe sticking out of its crotch, like the hero of Ashguine 2, and the background music for that stage, "Curse of IRON PIPE," is based on a theme from that game (which is why it had to be replaced in the Wii Ware version). The game is also referenced in Elder Xelpud's ramblings.

                                   Barret: Y'all Shinra're the VERMIN, killing the planet! And that makes you King VERMIN! So shu'up, jackass!

                                  • Viva Pinata contains numerous shout-outs to other Rareware productions in many of the garden decorations--there's a "Bear and Bird" statue of Banjo and Kazooie, the "Dastardos Scarer" that keeps the evil doctor out of your garden looks like Mumbo from the same game, and there's even a "Pirate Statue" commemorated to a built-into-something-else-entirely SNES project of Rare's called "Dream." (The description even says, "Dedicated to a dream that will never die. ") There's also an old arcade machine that's "lost its Killer Instinct."
                                    • As well as the Mallowolf's attack being to throw amulets from Sabre Wulf, and it's home looking like the head of the wolf from said game.
                                    • In Sonic Unleashed, like one of the shout-outs in Pokémon above, Eggman can be seen with a Sega Dreamcast in his cockpit.
                                      • In Shadow the Hedgehog, if you do certain paths, you hear two of them. The first is after completing the first level with the "hero" ending, Sonic says "I guess that means. welcome to the next level." "Welcome to the Next Level" was one of Sega's old slogans. The second occurs on any level that occurs on the ARK, you will hear the guards occasionally say "Protect Yuji Naka", a shout out to the person credited to the creation of Sonic.
                                      • There's a long tradition of Sega consoles appearing in Sonic. In one of the old books he owned a Game Gear which he could use to reprogram Robotnik's robots. Whether he ever playedSonic the Hedgehog is thankfully unexplored.
                                      • Many of them can be found in "Star* Soldier", the manual for Wing Commander Arena, mostly in the form of references to members of the online fandom.
                                      • The galaxy map that shipped with some versions of Prophecy, has stars named after famous science fiction authors, online fandom members, and famous astronauts.
                                        • In one particular case, a Real Life star, Barnard's Star, was renamed to Bernard's Star, to honor Jason Bernard, who played Captain William Eisen in Wing Commander III and Wing Commander IV. Bernard passed away shortly after the release of the latter game. See also the TCS Eisen from Wing Commander Prophecy, mentioned in a character's dialog.
                                        • Likewise, several of the later novels (including the movie Novelization) give thanks to fans who helped in a similar manner.
                                        • And in Heart of the Tiger, Blair is played by Mark Hamill. The end game, which has you flying down a trench run to blow up Kilrah, is a direct take off of Star Wars.
                                            by Tom Wilson in an outtake that is included at the end, where he puts a spin on one of the scenes where he plays Maniac.
                                              • And yet another Shout-Out, this time to The Terminator. The Nonstandard Game Over has the Kilrathi invade Earth, and we get a nice scene where a furry foot crushes a human skull, replete with the sky aflame in nuclear fire.
                                              • Just in case it wasn't clear from the Buster Sword, every one of these swords is a fake and has a pretty obvious tell that gives it away. The Revolver has the wrong symbol and no trigger, The Orichalcum is too long, etc.
                                                • Oh, and take note of both his fight music, and that the first fight with him is a battle on a big bridge.
                                                • Don't forget that in the Dawn of Souls version at least, there is a headstone in Elfheim dedicated to Link.
                                                • Minamimoto uses an attack in a cutscene that's another shout out to Final Fantasyas well as an obscure math pun. He calls it "Level i Flare", a reference to the recurring level-targeting Blue Magic throughout the series targeting everything with a level divisible to whatever x is in "Level x Flare", usually 5 (and since i is the square root of negative 1, and -1 times -1 equals 1, and everything is divisible cleanly by 1, that means that every number, real or imaginary, is a multiple of i. Nothing escapes Level i flare, no matter what its level is.)
                                                • The PC RPG Septerra Core from Valkyrie Studios has a shout-out to the "Aren't you a little short for a Stormtrooper?" scene from Star Wars when Maya infiltrates Connors' pirate base.
                                                  • It also features another shout out to a George Lucas work with the number 1138 cropping up in the form of an override password.
                                                  • Paper Mario the Thousand Year Door features a character named Fred in Fahr Outpost. When he is Tattled, Goombella remarks that he's not very freaky for a Fred.
                                                  • Tales of Symphonia also features the recurring phrase "Give me your name and I'll give you mine," from the Dwarf-raised Lloyd.
                                                  • In Tales of Phantasia, Cress can equip a set of ten items from The Tower of Druaga to receive the title "Gilgamesh." The same title and a similar set of items exist for Zelos Wilder in Tales of Symphonia.
                                                  • The same level may also be a reference to the train level in Wario Land II.

                                                   The Master Thief: Dracula

                                                  Iron John: The Terminator, complete with an Ahnuld-soundalike and "Prince Connor"

                                                  The Pied Piper: Surprisingly obscurely, German expressionist films such as M and Metropolis the scene at the end is virtually identical to the "Moloch Machine" scene in Metropolis, and the Pied Piper is voiced by a convincing Peter Lorre impersonator.

                                                  • There are a lot of strange creature in Spore, but one of the stranger Maxis-created ones are the Barney Empire. And yes, they were purple dinosaurs. Oddly enough, they also lived in close proximity with the Grox , which might say something about Barney.
                                                  • In Destroy All Humans! 2, there's a mission that requires you to kill one Agent 47 in a discreet manner.
                                                    • And the civilian chatter in its stand-in for 1960s London includes mistaking Crypto for a Silurian, and calls for someone to get The Doctor or Professor Quatermass.
                                                    • Goro Majima is a sadistic, unstable gangster who literally laughs at pain- even his own- and is willing to kill his own henchmen for the slightest infraction. Not to mention he's so obsessed with killing the protagonist himself that he'll do just about anything to stop someone who's near beating him to the punch. And in the American version (Yakuza) he's voiced by Mark Hamill.
                                                      • Here's a cutscene as Exhibit A.
                                                      • The two yama NPCs in Athlum and Ghor are named Vergil and Dante, respectively.
                                                      • Rush (voiced by Johnny Yong Bosch) at one point shouts "Jackpot!"
                                                      • A tournament's slogan is "Welcome back to the stage of history!"
                                                      • Almost all of the Remnants and formations are shout outs to previous entries in the SaGa series. Then there's the Bilqis, a weapon that looks like a cross between an axe and a chainsaw.
                                                      • A redone version of the tune can be heard on the title screen of The Legend of Zelda Ocarina of Time.
                                                      • In the English version only, at the end of the game, Princess Peach says, "Thank you. But our Princess is in another castle. Just kidding! Ha ha ha! Bye bye." This refers to "Thank you Mario! But our princess is in another castle!" from the original Super Mario Bros.
                                                      • And in a non-Wild ARMs reference, the Memory Bird in Harmonde gives a parody that many Castlevania: Symphony of the Night players will surely recognize:

                                                        Memory Bird: What is greed? A miserable pile of selfishness! But enough talk.

                                                      • The Shin Megami Tensei game Raidou Kuzunoha vs. the Soulless Army has a homeless NPC that you can encounter in Episode 2 early on. After you bribe the Lucky Charm out of his hands, you can read his mind again to reveal him saying "You all assume I'm safe here in my hood, unless I try to start again." This is a shout out to Linkin Park's song, Breaking the Habit.
                                                        • And also in Chapter 2, Oboroguruma, a ghost car that appears at the Full moon, says this:
                                                        • In the Tsukihime "sequel" Kagetsu Tohya, there is a shoutout to the boxing manga/anime Hajime no Ippo. For comedy purposes Ciel uses a fighting style she calls "The Hitman Style" and assumes a stance similar to that of Mashiba Ryo, the character who uses that style in Hajime no Ippo. This is a reference to this manga because Thomas "Hitman" Hearns, the real-life boxer who this style was based on, did not call his style "the Hitman Style."
                                                          • Arc, in her cat form, counters this by avoiding the punches in an "oddly familiar circular motion", a reference to Ippo's "Dempsey Roll" and peek-a-boo style.
                                                          • In the second Might and Magic, there was a Lord Peabody who offered your party use of a Time Machine if you went out and retrieved his "boy," a Paladin named Sherman. Most of the hireling names were jokes of some kind, and one of the "portal" services was operated by a fellow named Jean-Luc, who offered to "beam you" to another town.
                                                          • Speaking of Spider-Man game shout outs in the game based upon the second movie, aside from having the usual shout outs to Spider-Man and the Marvel Universe in general, the game also includes a considerably more subtle shout out to a completely different work. The shout out comes in the form of a random piece of dialogue you might hear from some thugs on the street.
                                                            • The game based on the second movie also had Mysterio saying "Clatto Verata Nicto! and YOU HAVE NO CHANCE TO SURVIVE MAKE YOUR TIME!
                                                            • The third movie's game had Spidey telling villains "I'd heard you were a cowardly and superstitious bunch. "
                                                            • Harvest Moon: Tree of Tranquility features a pair of carpenter's apprentices named Bo and Luke, who even share hair colors with their counterparts from The Dukes of Hazzard (Bo's got blond hair and Luke's a brunette). Their personalities are inverted, though: Luke's the impulsive apprentice, and Bo's the rational one.
                                                            • Mind-reading a certain lumberjack NPC in Golden Sun has him say "I'm a lumberjack, and I'm okay. with that" (it even pauses for a second after the "okay" appears before that "with that" does).
                                                            • Kingdom Hearts:
                                                              • While fighting the hydra in Kingdom Hearts II, you can use a reaction command called "urninate".
                                                              • Also in Kingdom Hearts II, when Cloud goes up against Sephiroth, Sephiroth begins his Hannibal Lecture. Cloud tells him to shut up.
                                                              • In Kingdom Hearts 358 Days Over 2, there's a set of weapons called Casual Gear. When this is equipped, Demyx's sitar turns into a tennis racket. It's name? Prince of Awesome. Another of Demyx's weapons in Days is called "Up ToEleven".
                                                              • And, this being Dwarf Fortress, it's incredibly easy to add more as you see fit. For instance, there's a player-created mod that adds new reasons for dwarfs to like existing critters among those added are ". likes Batmen for their awesome theme songs. DANANANANANANA BATMAN!"
                                                              • In Overlord 2, following the player's attack on a city's gate involving explosives, the game confirms the event by saying, 'You've blown the bloody doors off!'
                                                              • In the "sequel", Nemesis, you need to take a picture of a bat to stun it (Long story). When you look at the picture, sure enough, the shadow looks exactly like a famous insignia. And then the guard says to take it to a man named Wayne, as it was his camera.
                                                              • Another Fake Ultimate Hero from the series is AceHardlight. That's either a double Shout-Out to Red Dwarf (which featured a hard light hologram superhero who went by the title of 'Ace') or an uncanny coincidence.
                                                              • Crack in Time goes absolutely nuts with them, see the series's page for details.
                                                              • The boat level of Renegade had shout outs to Gilligan's Island and The Love Boat.
                                                              • The series' resident Tank Goodness incarnate, the Mammoth Tank, is a nod to the Nazi German super-heavy tank Panzer VIII Maus, the largest WW 2 tank to reach the prototype stage it was captured by the Soviets before it ever managed to hit the production lines. How is that relevant? It was going to be named MammutΑ] , at one point.
                                                              • In the final Soviet mission, completing one of the objectives causes President Ackerson to rage "Why, you little."
                                                              • 'Splosion Man makes a Shout Out in the process of pointing out that something else in the game isn't actually a Shout Out -- the achievement for getting all the Cakes is called "This is not a Portal reference."
                                                                • Isn't actually a Shout-Out? Suuuuure, 'Splosion Man, whatever you say.

                                                                 Scientist 1: "Have you seen Doctor Freeman?"

                                                                Scientist 2: "I think he went to fetch another crowbar. "

                                                                  • In an attempt to add more examples, two of the munitions skills have purchasable advantages called Listen to Reason and Not Without Incident
                                                                  • Playing "I Am the Walrus" leads to a shout out to the sequence with the song in the Magical Mystery Tour film.
                                                                  • "Canderous" was also the name of a minor NPC in Castlekeep.
                                                                  • The Wookie seems quite similar to Chewie, swears a lifedebt to your character, and travels with a "scoundrel." (Though, unlike Han, Mission is a sweet-natured teenaged girl).
                                                                  • And there are a ridiculous amount of references to the movies. From the opening shot of the Endar Spire under attack (shades of the Tantive IV) to the Star Forge (the final Boss battle area was inspired by the Throne Room in ROTJ). In the second game, the Exile can point out that lying is still lying, even if it's "from a certain point of view". When rescuing Bastila, one dialogue option is "My name is <Fullname>, and I'm here to save you!" (A recreation of Luke's line to Leia). During torture, you're also given the option to say "Alderaan. It's on Alderaan" - a direct reversal of Leia's stall tactic of "Dantooine. It's on Dantooine!"
                                                                    • You also have the option to call Zaalbar a "walking carpet" when you meet him (a reference to Leia's dismissal of Chewbacca).
                                                                    • In the second game, you can say "Maybe you'd like it back in your cell?" when Atton complains about your rescue attempt (reference to Han's reaction to Leia complaining about their lack of planning), and if you beat the game as a light-side and then as a dark-side character you get an easter egg in which Atton asks a female character "Are you an angel? No, that's the worst line I've ever used. Hope some poor kid doesn't start using it," doubling as a Take That to Anakin's awkward introduction to Padme in episode 1.
                                                                    • The Back to The Future level also should get a mention as well.
                                                                    • What about the things you can summon? Let's see: The Giant Enemy Crab, Cthulhu, Shoggoth and Shambler, Ceiling Cat, Spaghetti Cat and Longcat, All Your Base Are Belong to Us (yes, this is an object, no, it isn't very useful), Rick Astley, Philosoraptor, a Boomstick (summons a shotgun), Manbearpig, Twilight (which summons a black hole), "Ultimate Weapon" summons a crowbar. TheDevTeamThinksOfEverything, indeed.
                                                                    • Final Fantasy Tactics a 2 has the "kings", five wizards with (horribly Anglicized) French names for the five colors of magic: Ruuj (red), Bliu (blue), Verre (green), Nware (black), and Blanch (white). While we're here, those are also the three colors in Magic: The Gathering, though they have different meanings there. (For starters, red magic in M:TG is what black magic is in Final Fantasy.)
                                                                    • The second boss of Beat is pretty much a sideways version of Breakout.
                                                                    • The second boss battle in Core is a direct Shout-Out to Missile Command. You have to use your laser to zap the "missiles" (Bits) before they reach the cities below.
                                                                    • The bonus stages in Runner are designed similarly to Pitfall, where Commander Video has to run through a jungle collecting bars of gold while avoiding unattended campfires.
                                                                    • Also, The One's curse will kill you three days after you receive his call.
                                                                    • One of the higher leveled magic books is the Note of Death. (Don't write your own name in it.)
                                                                    • There also is Eyedol's parodic ending, in which a woman in purple approaches him claiming that he's her long lost son Billy, lost in a car incident, and that she gave him his bracelets for his birthday -mirroring exactly the epilogue of Blanka in SFII. Minus the last scene.
                                                                      • Which is a doubleShout-Out, if you realize that his "full name" would then be Billy Eyedol. Sounds familiar?
                                                                      • A more subtle Batman Shout-Out in the game: When you are climbing walls and leaping across buildings you occasionally hear a bystander say: "Another capering crusader."
                                                                      • Heck not just the beatles the entire Mother series has shout outs to a lot of old pop culture such as The Runaway Five being a reference to the Blues Brothers which was so obvious they were changed for the American translation, and theres also a reference to the Barrett strong song (Money thats what I want) as well as tons of other old pop culture and movie references throughout the entire series also it is natural for it to have tons of Beatles references as Itoi is a huge fan of The Beatles.
                                                                      • Don't forget Dr. Strangelove, with Daxter referring to "missile hat an' spurs".
                                                                      • During the driving scene in the prologue, Enzo's car stereo is briefly tuned to "Magical Sound Shower" (a song from the arcade racing game OutRun).
                                                                      • The first two sections of Chapter XIV are almost direct recreations of levels from Space Harrier, and the achievement/trophy you get for completing them with platinum medals is called "Fire the Afterburners!"
                                                                      • Rodin, the merchant at the Gates of Hell, also gives a nod to Resident Evil 4's merchant with this line:

                                                                       "Hey, check this out. 'What're ya buyin'?' Heard that in a game once. "

                                                                        • Rodin also commented that he always wanted to be a bald space marine, which is a shout out to. something -- that's not exactly the most specific description.
                                                                        • It has some references to some of the series and games the developers at Platinum Games -- former employees of Capcom and Clover Studios -- worked on. For instance, when rattling off a list of his girlfriends, Luka mentions Claire, Trish, Sylvia, and Ammy. He has lipstick on his face in a pattern resembling Amaterasu's markings at the time, as well.
                                                                          • Sometimes, when you visit Rodin, he'll say, "Whatever it is you want, I'm not putting a chainsaw on your arm, got it?" a nod to chainsaw-armed protagonist Jack Cayman from MadWorld.
                                                                          • A strung-up Lara Croft.

                                                                           Lo Wang: She's raided her last tomb!

                                                                            • A tomb, presumably belonging to Jackie Chan, if Lo Wang's remark is anything to go by.
                                                                            • Pick up a second Uzi and Lo Wang will say "Be proud, Mister Woo."
                                                                            • In the first chapter of Final Fantasy XIII, Sazh (the Token Minority) quotes Lethal Weapon by saying "I'm too old for this (shit)". Although this may have been unintentional, it is still awesome.
                                                                            • In Olivia's second Story Mode path in Battle Fantasia, she encounters a mysterious stranger who calls himself the "Romance Knight" (who is actually a masked Ashley) , who's basically a walking shout-out to Tuxedo Kamen from Sailor Moon. He tosses a single rose at his opponent, signaling his arrival, and then gives a short speech about love and devotion before disappearing.
                                                                            • One system in Eve Online contains a massive black monolith.
                                                                            • Wii Sports Resort features Swordplay Champion Matt. Between his Samuel L. Jackson-esque appearance and the fact he wields a violet sword when they usually come in red or blue, the Mace Windu parallel is pretty obvious.
                                                                            • The Mooks in the Village level of Wonder Boy III Monster Lair look like the Toadstool people from the Super Mario Bros. universe, and the stage boss is a King Mook version. They were also in Wonder Boy in Monster Land.
                                                                            • Emma, the DJ from Barrow Hill, is an obvious, albeit younger, Shout-Out to Stevie, the female DJ from John Carpenter's The Fog.
                                                                            • When the player is doing well while playing as Han Solo in Star Wars Battlefront II, an enemy stormtrooper will occasionally exclaim, "Hey! Solo shot first! That's not fair!", a clear reference to Han's confrontation with Greedo at Mos Eisley in the original Star Wars movie.
                                                                            • A subtle one: at one point in Lost Planet 2, you have to fend off a giant (nearly) invincible Sand Worm type creature in a desert. It has scurrying legs at its front that are suspiciously identical to those possessed by the Ohmu from Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind -- similarly invincible insect creatures inhabiting an Earth that's largely desert.
                                                                            • Alan Wake has a number of these, many from Alan's agent, Barry. If you turn the lights off in the cabin, Barry complains about the threat of being "eaten by a grue".
                                                                              • A running gag of shout outs lightens the mood of the game with "Night Springs," a TV series that is halfway between an Homage and Take That for The Twilight Zone. The episodes, which feature an overly philosophical narrator, become increasingly ridiculous until they are practically open mockery of the original series (one particularly moronic episode starts with the narrator saying "Are we men dreaming of being butterflies, or butterflies dreaming of being men?").
                                                                              • The entire game is basically a re-imaging of the backstory to G1, with a TV series following up on it planned. It has shout-outs to every other Western Transformers thrown in for good measure. Actually explaining how Starscream went from a scientist and friend of Jetfire to a treacherous Decepticon is a nice touch.
                                                                              • More then likely this is a shoutout to another Konami game.
                                                                              • The Scrambler will occasionally insert "mah boi" into sentences. Yes, Daniel Remar, the last person you'd expect to like Youtube Poop, made a Youtube Poop reference.
                                                                              • There's also a billboard with a Servbot.
                                                                              • A reference to the infamous Onyxia Wipe animation on a computer console.
                                                                              • "Two Beans One Cup Latte" on a menu at a cafe -- a reference, of course, to the coprophiliac, uh, "classic," Two Girls One Cup.
                                                                              • Ellis makes a reference to Life Alert, of all things, when he hangs on a ledge:

                                                                                Ellis: "Help! I seem to have fallen! . And no, I can't get back up!"

                                                                              • The Level 13 boss in Wonder Boy III Monster Lair is a Cyber Cyclops knight that looks like a Cylon Centurion, complete with the oscillating red eye.
                                                                              • At one point in Ys Seven, an NPC at the tavern is trying to remember the name of the flower girl Tia. but all his guesses instead resemble the name of a different, rather famous video game flower girl.
                                                                              • Descent II has green homing missile-launching robots called Lou Guards (which are also expies of the Super Hulks from the first game), a possible reference to Lou Ferrigno of The Incredible Hulk fame. Also, one of the later levels is named "Drec'nilbie K'luh".
                                                                              • In Space Quest VI, the endodroid subplot is a reference to Terminator 2. Lick the wallpaper in the elevator, and Roger will say, "The snozzberries taste like snozzberries!" Talk to the elevator door, and the narrator will reply in the whiny voice of Cedric from King's Quest V. There are also references to Star Wars and Alien, among other things.
                                                                                • The intro of the VGA remake of Space Quest I, where the Arcada is captured by the Deltaur, is a shoutout to the opening of Star Wars a New Hope.
                                                                                • The landing platform on Labion looks like the Endor landing platform from Return of the Jedi.
                                                                                • Another Terminator reference is Arnoid the Annihilator in SQ 3.
                                                                                • The Energizer Bunny makes an appearance in the starting area of SQ 4.
                                                                                • The series as a whole is so full of these, it should have its own page.

                                                                                 Prinny: "Take that, dood!"

                                                                                • One line in The Lost Crown: A Ghost-Hunting Adventure is a Title Drop for the MR James work, A Warning To The Curious, that provided much of the inspiration for the game's storyline.
                                                                                • The first motorcycle level in Tomb Raider: Legend is a shoutout to the ending of Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade.
                                                                                • In Civilization V, the achievement for destroying an enemy unit in one turn is called It's Super Effective.
                                                                                • In Lands of Lore, when you examine a random bush, you get a response: "Is that a Pseudobushia Hugiflora?" Pseudobushia Hugiflora is a talking plant you have to grow in The Legend of Kyrandia. (Both games were made by Westwood Studios.)
                                                                                  • Likewise, both in Lands of Lore and Legend of Kyrandia you can find a "Piscata Rosea" item.
                                                                                  • A recent update in Final Fantasy XI included a reference to Kyuubey of all things, as the Δ] .
                                                                                  • The Wrath boss walks around the room dropping bombs, just like Bomberman. The layout of its room even has hard blocks that can't be blasted.

                                                                                   Gig: ". it can fly at like 5 million miles an hour. It has heat vision, it can breathe super-freezing air, and it can shoot freaking lasers from its eyes. Oh, but it can't see through lead, and it's totally weak to a certain element from its home world."

                                                                                  Hero: "No. He just stole that from somewhere."

                                                                                  • Maji De Watashi Ni Koi Shinasai has numerous ones to other series, such as Gundam or Dragonball.
                                                                                    • One event in the Visual Novel reveals that Momoyo lost sleep due to spending the night reading one of Yamato's manga collection. The name of the manga? 20th Century Men.
                                                                                    • The boys are always reading copies of "Jasop", discussing the latest "To-Loverun". Yamato asks Yukie to fetch him a copy of . Note that the "N" character in katakana is very similar to "So" in Japanese.
                                                                                    • EVERY SINGLE quit-game skit in the Visual Novel is a shout out to something, including other roles played by each character's voice actor/actress. One such simple gag goes as follows

                                                                                     Momoyo: "I'm gonna play the little sister character today!" "Hey brother! Where are you?"

                                                                                    Suguru: "I'm right here! Your elder brother stands before you!"

                                                                                    Momoyo: "Found ya!"*PUNCH*

                                                                                    This skit references these two characters' voice actor/actress' roles in the Zeta Gundam movie compilation.


                                                                                    Sometimes, it's just not going to happen, and you can't find that elusive book you've been searching for. It's okay! Great news: The world is full of great books! Here are a few ways to find more.

                                                                                    • Check out recommendations from our book experts here at NYPL. We offer suggestions via blog posts, the Staff Picks book finder, The Librarian Is In podcast, and more.
                                                                                    • If you'd like a personalized recommendation, find us on Twitter or fill out our What Should I Read Next? email form.
                                                                                    • Want a brand-new read? Check out our favorite New and Noteworthy titles.

                                                                                    Feel free to leave a comment and tell us about a book you’re trying to remember! Our library staff members will pop in and check it periodically, and readers of this post are welcome to make guesses and suggestions.


                                                                                    US fighting code 1959

                                                                                    COVER PAGE-FRONT
                                                                                    "RESISTANCE TO TYRANTS IS OBEDIENCE TO GOD", THOMAS JEFFERSON
                                                                                    EXECUTIVE ORDER 10631
                                                                                    CODE OF CONDUCT
                                                                                    FOR MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES
                                                                                    By virtue of the authority vested in me as
                                                                                    President of the United States and as Com­
                                                                                    mander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the
                                                                                    United States, I hereby prescribe the Code of
                                                                                    Conduct for Members of the armed Forces of
                                                                                    the United States"which is attached to this
                                                                                    order and hereby made a part thereof.
                                                                                    Every member of the Armed Forces of the
                                                                                    United States is expected to measure up to the standards embodied in this Code of Conduct .while he is in combat or in captivity. To ensure achievement of these standards, each member of the Armed Forces liable to capture shall be provided with specific training and instruction designed to better equip him to counter and withstand all enemy efforts against him, and shall be fully instructed as to the behavior and obligations expected of him during comlmt or
                                                                                    captivity.
                                                                                    The Secretary of Defense (and the Secretary of the Treasury with respect to the Coast Guard exeept when it is serving as part of the Navy) shall take such action as is deemed neeessary to implement this order and to disseminate and make the said Code known to all members of the Armed Forces of the United States. THI'J WHITE HOUSE August 17, 1955
                                                                                    For sale by tbe Superintendent of Documents, U,S. Government Printing Office
                                                                                    9 am. at1,5m

                                                                                    i,-6ifens.e.
                                                                                    9wi[neuersurren6er Qf m

                                                                                    own fl-ee wHf. fJf inII COttltn

                                                                                    menwhl(e /fhe..9.stillhave themeans.:t"resist.

                                                                                    no iL!forma. tion nor tal,c_pmi: in £mg action which mi.ght.

                                                                                    e bart0UC to tU3 comra6cs.·

                                                                                    -not. 0 wi([ obe.li1:he GUgrtC' or6ers.Efthose3'yointe6 oue,me· an6wiabacff them 'P inetJ

                                                                                    IDi(feva6e. answct:in,g ji1t:th"crquestions to. tGe utmosto[tt'

                                                                                    aror,-,.ritten statem%ttt5
                                                                                    6is(O

                                                                                    aCto u:Y.country attp its atiles or h

                                                                                    9.
                                                                                    The POW Can Resist " .. .. 73

                                                                                    17.
                                                                                    Faith Will Triumph , .. . 140

                                                                                    FOREWORD
                                                                                    D
                                                                                    uring and after the Korean war it became appar­ent that many U.S. fighting men had been inade­quately prepared for the ordeal they faced in Korea. Accordingly, a "Code of Conduct for ::Uembers of the Armed Forces of the United States" was drawn up. Based on traditional ideals and principles, the Code is intended to give guidance to all members of the. Armed Forces in any future conflict.
                                                                                    Since the Code was proclaimed in 1955, each of the Serv­ices has improved its instruction on how to avoid capture and what to do if taken prisoner of war. Each Service program has been analyzed, and the best points are reflected in this revised pamphlet, "The U.S. Fighting Man's Code." Some of the material in the booklet has been drawn from Army Pamphlet No. 30-101, "Commu­nist Interrogation, Indoctrination, and Exploitation of Prisoners of 'Val''' The Airman, official journal of the Air Force and the Naval T1'aining Bulletin. Materials and suggestions have been received also from the U.S. Marine Corps, and these are reflected in this pamphlet.
                                                                                    The assistance of all of the Services is acknowledged with thanks.
                                                                                    INTRODUCTION
                                                                                    T
                                                                                    he United States is proud of the record of its fj.ghtingmen. The overwhelming majority of them have metthe standards of the Code of Conduct from the beginning
                                                                                    of our military history. Every war has produced outstand­ing examples of their devotion to duty, country, God.
                                                                                    Although the Code of Conduct grew out of studies of
                                                                                    behavior in Korea, that conflict also had its heroes, too
                                                                                    many to list here. The individual acts of courage and
                                                                                    fortitude by Americans in Communist prison camps alone
                                                                                    would fill volumes. For their exemplary conduct while
                                                                                    prisoners of war, many American fighting men were
                                                                                    decorated.
                                                                                    But the fact remains that in Korea, as in every other
                                                                                    war, a few Americans did less than their best to avoid
                                                                                    capture-and a few of those who were captured cooper­ated with the enemy. 'Vho is responsible? Certainly, themen concerned.
                                                                                    But the military Services, the Department
                                                                                    of Defense, and our Nation must assume a share of theresponsibility.
                                                                                    An indomitable will to resist is not acquired overnight.
                                                                                    Kor can it be supplied by military training alone. For itrests on character traits instilled in our homes, ourschools, our elull'ches-traits such as self-confidence, self­reliance, self-discipline, self-respect, moral responsibility,and faith in country and God.
                                                                                    The sen'iceman equipped with the will reinforced bythe skill to resist is prepared for whatever military serv­ice has in store for him.
                                                                                    Both the will and the skill toresist a Communist foe are strengthened by knowledge ofCommunist tactics and techniques. '
                                                                                    The serviceman who understands the nature of Com­munist enslavement will do his utmost to avoid it. Guided
                                                                                    by the vrecepts of tlle Code of Conduct, and profiting bythe experiences of those unfortunate enough to have beencaptured by the Comillunists, he will never surrender him­self 01' his men while there is the slightest chance of avoid­
                                                                                    2
                                                                                    ing it. He will never give up the fight before the situation is truly hopeless.
                                                                                    If capthre is inevitable, he will continue the battle in the prisoner-of-war camp. He will make every reasonable effort to escape and help others who attempt to escape. He will resist enemy efforts to make a tool of him. He will strive to maintain the unity of his group. He will assume leadership if necessary, or obey the leader of his group.
                                                                                    In so doing, he will be fulfilling his mission and uphold­ing the tradition of U.S. fighting men of the past.
                                                                                    3
                                                                                    Chapter 1
                                                                                    THE NEW ROLE OF THE POW
                                                                                    S
                                                                                    omething baffling happened to the American fighting
                                                                                    man who became a prisoner of war in Korea. It
                                                                                    baffled' his Service, the Department of Defense, and our
                                                                                    Nation as welL
                                                                                    The Po-W expected interrogation and brutal treatment. He knew the Communists would try to squeeze military information from him, and he certainly did not think they would use kid gloves. In this situation, he was to give only his name, rank, service number, and date of birth. He would evade answering other questions to the utmost of his ability.
                                                                                    If tortured, he could pray for strength to withstand his ordeal.
                                                                                    If possible, he would try to escape and rejoin U.S. forces.
                                                                                    Otherwise, based on the experience of past wars, the POW could expect to "sit out" the remainder of the con­flict in a prison camp.
                                                                                    The POW got what he expected … plus Illuch he had not expected!
                                                                                    ASSAULT ON THE MIND
                                                                                    The moment a PO'W fell into Comillunist hands in Korea, his captors launched an assault upon his mind and his spirit. Taking advantage of his bewilderment, they plotted their every move with a definite end in view,
                                                                                    The Communist aim: To make pl:isonel's of war serve the cau,se ot international communism.
                                                                                    Accordingly, American PO"V's were subjected to a well­planned and well-organized type of warfare with which few were familiar and for which few were prepared. Briefly, this warfare was aimed at undermining their loyalty to their country and their faith in the democratic
                                                                                    4
                                                                                    way of life–and thereby, conditioning them to accept communism.
                                                                                    How did the enemy wage this new type of war against our fighting men? 'Vhat strategy and tactics were em­ployed? What kind of weapons were used? A thorough study of hundreds of interviews with repatriated Amer­ican prisoners providecl the answers to those questions.
                                                                                    "rhere the Communists were most successful in making a prisoner do as they wished, they preyed upon his clefects, his lack of knowledge, and his lack of experience. It fol­lows, then, that if U.S. fighting men in Korea had known what to expect and had been prepared, those who became PO'V's could have spared themselves much agony … and could have put up much more effective resistance.
                                                                                    As long as the Communists threaten direct or indirect
                                                                                    aggression to free nations anywhere, the danger of war
                                                                                    continues. The United States and her allies will seek
                                                                                    by every honorable means to avoid a shooting war. In the
                                                                                    event of hostilities, however, you-as a U.S. fighting man­could become a prisoner.
                                                                                    The prisoner's life is never an easy one. And life as a prisoner of the Communists is especially grim, since it holels ordeals beyond the usual hardships of captivity. Hence, you will want to avoid it to the best of your ability. In doing so, you will not only be following the honorable course-set forth clearly in Article II of the Code–but you will be serving your own best interests as well. Some alternatives to surrender are indicated in
                                                                                    chal,ter 13. If you fail to explore every alternative when threatened with capture, you will be making a serious mistake–possibly a fatal mistake.
                                                                                    BE PREPARED
                                                                                    The purpose of this booklet is to help you prepare your­self for any eventuality. By reviewing what happened in past wars, especially in Korea, and by examining ,vhat the Communists are trying to achieve, you will be better pre­pared for what may lie ahead.
                                                                                    5
                                                                                    Specifically, this booklet aims to acquaint you with someof the tactics, techniques, and methods of Communistinterrogation, indoctrination, and handling of prisoners ofwar, and to suggest some defenses against these enemyweapons. It is intended to show you also how the U.S.]'ighting Man's Code can serve as your armor, either incombat or in a POlY camp.
                                                                                    "KnOWledge is power." 'I'his holds just as true for the
                                                                                    U.S. fighting man facing the Communist aggressor as itdoes for the scientist in the laboratory. Much of theknowledge and much of the strength you need to sustainJ'ou as an effective fighting man will sustain you also ifyou become a prisoner.
                                                                                    '[Ɔ combat Comlllunists effectively, either in battle or ina prison camp, remember this:
                                                                                    .. International communism seeks world domination.
                                                                                    .. Communists will use military force when it suits theirpurpose.
                                                                                    s
                                                                                    &bull
                                                                                    Military force is simply onc way of winning control of the world.

                                                                                    &bull
                                                                                    Communists also keep up an unrelenting war of propa­ganda, subversion, sabotage.

                                                                                    In :1"orth Korea, most American POlY'S learned the hareI way that no enemy is a friend in a prisoner-of-war camp that friendships must be deYelolled among their own people and not with the enemy. In the eyent of another con­flict with a Communist foe, American fighting men can expect similar treatment. All Communists are trained for one purpose–defeat of the capitalist democracies, eSllecially the United States.
                                                                                    If you eyer find yourself a llrisoner of the COIlllllunists and are tempted to think that war has swept on beyond you, just remember: thcrc is 110 SlIch thing as "timc out" in the global struggle between communism and the forces of freedom. Your Communist captor vill not take 'time out" to proyide shelter, food, or medical care. 'Yhateyer care or help he gives you will not be for humanitarian reasons. It will be giyen to help atlvc£nce thc COIIUllllnist cause.
                                                                                    How coulcl the Communists use you? What woulcl they expect of you?

                                                                                    THEY SEEK INFORMATION
                                                                                    First, as in preYious wars, they woulcl be seeking military information. There is nothing new about this. Captors haye been seeking this from llrisoners since the clays of primitiYe warfare. Next, they will attempt to get all kinds of nonmilitary information-about you, your fellow pris­oners, ancl your country. Your instructions in either case remain the same.
                                                                                    You will giye only your name, rank, service number, and date of birth. You will evacle answering other ques­tions to the utmost of your ability.
                                                                                    If you were defending a vital spot, you would not sur­rencler it simply because enemy fire threatenecl your life. To do so woulcl be to unclermine the safety of your outfit
                                                                                    and your ('ountry. By the :-ame token, if you become a1Ɔ", you will not gi"(


                                                                                    the enemy any information Ill'('an use again:-t your fellow PO"'s, your fighting forees,
                                                                                    your eountry, or your ('ountry's allies.
                                                                                    A Comlllunist interrogator may threaten a 1Ɔ" withdeath, torture, or solitary ('ontinement:. If the 1Ɔ" givesIlim what he wants beeause of these threats, he is asdisloyal as the lllan who surrenders in ('omlmt to saveIli:- own hide.
                                                                                    If eH

                                                                                    r you are ta ken priso]H'r of war, a big test willcome when you are firM interro,u:ated. Hefuse to giveanything but your n:une. rnnk. :-en'ice number, and date ofbirth nnd you impro"(

                                                                                    yonI' "hnnees of survivnl. If you
                                                                                    waver. you nre lo:-t! If you allov your Communist captorto drag other informn tion froll1 you-military or other­wise–he will ],eep mnl,ing more and more demands. Inthe end, he will foree you into n sh:unefnl ('ollaboration. The COmll11111ists ,,'ill nse wlwtever means they feel istbe most ejIe('tiH

                                                                                    to g'et the information tlwy want. Being
                                                                                    8
                                                                                    only human, they prefer to ao this the easy way. If they can get what they want from you with sweet talk, so much the better for them. But if you indicate a willingness to talk, or cooperate, you are a better subject for further questioning than the prisoner who obviously will not cooperate. If you show you are afraid of harsh treatment, you invite it.
                                                                                    What can you expect when you resist? In later chap­ters, you will read of men who did resist-even when threatened with death or physical torture. Some of them did die, victims of Communist brutality. But many more lived … and came home with honor!
                                                                                    The path of honor is neyer easy for a fighting man. But it is the onTy path for a man who respects himself and loves his country!
                                                                                    THEY WANT TO USE YOU
                                                                                    Apart from information, what will the Communists be seeking from you if you ever become a PO'V?
                                                                                    They will want to use you in the cause of cOlllmunism. This does not mean that they want you to become a mem­ber of the Communist Party. Even in the Soviet llnion, the Communist Party has accepted only 8 million members out of a total population of 200 million. However, the Communists woulcl like to have you become an open cham­pion of their ideas. If they succeed in getting you to cooperate, they will find many uses for you-both as a PO'V and after you are repatriated. For example, while you're a PO'V, they would like for you to broadcast propaganda messages to the folks back home. After you are released they would like for you to help pave the way for commu­nism in the USA. They will not be concerned in the least with your welfare, your rights, or Y01tr happiness as an individual. 'l'hey will be concerned with you only as a tool of comm11llisill.
                                                                                    The Communists will sometimes offer small bribes or rewards to get you to do what they want. If you prove uncooperative, they will not hesitate to use force.
                                                                                    For example, suppose' the Communists want yon to be an informer-to tattle on your fellow POV's, If any POV yalues a few cigareUe's :md "ome ('andy more' than he does his honor and the welfa re of his fpllow POV's, lJe ean make a deal. If he ean supply information of more than routine usefulness. his reward may be more. Suppose he refuses Ill' nwy be subjeeted to all kinds of penalties, from lJeatings to solitlHY confill('ment. But he still has his honor!
                                                                                    GUISES OF COMMUNISM Some of what happened in Korea may be outmoded if und jclicn another war breaks out:. If so, aIHI if

                                                                                    'ou be­come a PO', be alert for neY tricks and new ways to eon'r up old trieks. Comnll111ism assumes many disg:ui"ps. At Y1Hious times awl places, it Inay 1'rp"ent itself as friendl

                                                                                    ' and eonsidera teo ()n the other hand, dependi n,S' 011 the situation, it ma

                                                                                    ' be displayed in all its naked brntality. Some Ameri<'lln prisoners o!Jsen'ed both sides and many g:ui"es dnring their captlYity in Korea. OtllPrs saw only one side of communism. Most Alllerieans were imprps"pd by the Illannpr in which cOlllml111hlll can undergo quick changes from one guisp to another. Any man falling into ('Olllmllllht hands in the I'utul'e should Ill' jJl'('jJah'd to
                                                                                    10
                                                                                    encounter communism in any of the forms it may assume-­even the indignant denial that it is communism at all.
                                                                                    No matter how the Communists change their tactics, their motives and broader purposes will not change. Learn these, and you will understand that whatever they want YO/l to do will have some calculated end in view, and that ena will be to advance the ComIllunist cause.

                                                                                    IN CONCLUSION
                                                                                    The odds are that 'you will never become a prisoner of the Communists. At the same time, in any realistic appraisal of what lies ahead, it is a possibility that can­not be overlooked.
                                                                                    If such a fate should overtake you, you may be sure that your Government will do everything possible to rescue you. Meantime, until such help comes, you will have to rely on your own resources. This is the hard, cold truth!
                                                                                    In sUlllming up, remember that the Communists have three basic uscs for prisoners of war. They may seek to use any prisoner in one or more of these ways:
                                                                                    &bull
                                                                                    As a source of military information.

                                                                                    &bull
                                                                                    As a champion of communislll.

                                                                                    &bull
                                                                                    As a stooge to do their dirty work.

                                                                                    All three possibilities are repulsive. Yet your Govern­ment would be doing you a disservice if it did not try to make you aware of them. As bad as they are, fear of the unknown is worse. An ugly truth is no less ugly if it remains in hiding.
                                                                                    Face the facts! You'll find them, unadorned, in this pamphlet.
                                                                                    505596°󈞧—-2 11
                                                                                    Chapter 2
                                                                                    THE LESSONS OF HISTORY

                                                                                    F
                                                                                    OR a full understanding of today's prisoner-of-war problem, knowledge of the past is essential. This can help you prepare for the future.
                                                                                    Looking back to prehistoric times,we know that primi­th-e man and his barbarian descendant annihilated or enslaved all captive foemen. In time it occurred to the conqueror to hold a captured leader as hostage. Such a vidim was Lot. According to Scripture, he was freed by the forces of Abraham-perhaps the earliest prisoner­rescue on record.
                                                                                    The Romans sported with their war prisoners, often using them for target practice or for gladiatorial shows to amuse the public. Enslaved warriors rowed Caesar's galleys to North Africa and Britain, and were killed when they could no longer pull an oar. "Slay, and slay on t" Germanicus ordered his Rhineland invaders. "Do not take prisoners! vVe will have no peace until all are destroyed."
                                                                                    Chivalry developed in the ·Western vVorld with the rise of Christianity, the concept of "Do unto others." The code of knighthood served to curb the warrior's steel. The true knight refused to slay for slaughter's sake. Facing battle, he was pledged to remain true to his king or cause, even if captured. The disclosure of a trust or the deli"er­ance of a friend to the enemy was treacherous and merited swift punishment.
                                                                                    Thus rules for the fighting man in combat or in cap­tivity were linked to knightly concepts of duty, honor, loyalty to friend, and gallantry to a worthy foe.
                                                                                    Some time during the Crusades a prisoner-interrogation rule developed. The captive knight was permitted to divulge his name and rank-admissions necessitated by the game of ransom. However, the medieval foot soldier continued to risk death or enslavement at the hands of a conquering enemy, without hope of escape through ransom.
                                                                                    12
                                                                                    In Europe during the 17th c"entury, the idea emerged that prisoners of war were charges of the capturing sov­ereign or state. No rules for their treatment had been formulated, but they were protected from servitude and personal revenge. Later, during the 18th century, captivity came to be considered a means of preventing the prisoner's return to friendly forces. This was a step forward. Military prisoners were no longer considered guilty of crimes against the state.

                                                                                    THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
                                                                                    To discourage desertions during the Re·olution,. the Unitecl States established the death penalty for prisoners who, after capture, took up arms in the service of the enemy. Duress or coercion was recognized as mitigating only in the event that immediate death had been threat­ened. This was the first definition of required prisoner conduct.
                                                                                    Since' George III decreed that all Americans who re­volted against Crown authority were war criminals subject to' hanging, Revolutionary soldiers and sailors went to war under the shadow of the gallows. The noose was relaxed only because it proved impractical and because English liberals deplored such high-handecl tyranny. Soon after the outbreak of hostilities, prisoner exchanges were begun and paroles arranged.

                                                                                    THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
                                                                                    During the Civil "Val', about 3,170 captured Federals joinecl the Southern forces, and about 5,450 captured Con­federates joinecl the Fecleral army. War Department Gen­eral Order No: 207, issued 3 July 1863, apparently was intended to curb widespread surrender and subsequent parole to escape further combatant service. It provided, among other things, that it was the duty of a prisoner of war to escape. Punishment for misconduct was based on three criteria:
                                                                                    &bull Misconduct where there was no cluress or coercion.
                                                                                    13
                                                                                    &bull
                                                                                    Active participation in comlmt against Federal forces.

                                                                                    &bull
                                                                                    Failure to return voluntarily.

                                                                                    In cases involving disloyal prisoners of war, the ques­tion of duress-or degree of duress-was weighed in the balance. The Union Judge Advocate General recognized coercion as a defense. It was held that "extreme suffer­ing and privation which endangered the prisoner's life" might justify his enlistment with the enemy. However, if the prisoner made no effort to escape when opportunity offered, he was liable to a desertion charge.
                                                                                    Lieber's Code. Civil 'War prison camps were harsh. In Southern camps, particularly AnderSOllYille and Florence, men suffered greatly from malnutrition and lack of medi­cation. The Union prison on Johnson's Island in Lake Erie was a bleak Alcatraz, and Union stockades at Point Lookout on the Potomac were described as "hell holes."
                                                                                    Humane citizens, North and South, appealed for lenient treatment of captives. In 1863 President Lincoln requested Professor Francis Lieber to prepare a set of prisoner rules. Lieber's Instructions tor the Governmcnt at Arm'ics at the Unitecl States were probably the first comprehensive code of international law pertaining to prisoners of war to be issued by a government. Based on moral precepts that recognized the enemy as a fellow human with lawful rights, Lieber's code contained the following injunctions:
                                                                                    &bull
                                                                                    A prisoner of war is subject to no punishment for being a public enemy, nor is any revenge wreaked upon him by the intentional infliction of any suffering, or disgrace, by cruel imprisonment, want of food, by mutilation, death, or any other barbarity.

                                                                                    &bull
                                                                                    A prisoner of war remains answerable for his crimes committed before the captor's army or people, (for crimes) committed before he was captured, and for which he has not been punished by his own authori­ties.

                                                                                    &bull
                                                                                    A prisoner of war … is the prisoner of the govern­ment and not of the captor.

                                                                                    JlIIII!! Civi! ·Wllr prisollcrs lI'crc cOllfillcd in ICllls (aliovc) or >J>II!csiJ/f1 Slrll('[llrc8 (11('!01l') ((lid !lIc!ed liJe most ele­Jl!clilllr/! sallitar/! facilitics.
                                                                                    15
                                                                                    &bull
                                                                                    Prisoners of war are subject to confinement or im­prisonment such as may be deemed necessary on account of safety, but they are to be subjected to no other intentional suffering or indignity.

                                                                                    &bull
                                                                                    A prisoner of war who escapes may be shot, or other­wise killed in flight but neitl1er death nor any other punishment shall be inflicted upon him simply for llis attempt to escape, which the law of order does not consider a crime. Stricter means of security shall be used after an unsuccessful attempt at esca[Je.

                                                                                    &bull
                                                                                    Every captured wounded enemy shall be medically treated according to the ability of the medical staff.

                                                                                    Lieber's code was a step forward. The Confederacy agreed to abide by the code but could not always fulfill the code's intention. For example, the code required that prisoners' rations be similar to those issued their captors. But the South was slowly starving under pressure of blockade, and Southern soldiers as well as their prisoners suffered from the scarcity of food.
                                                                                    Interrogation and Information. In the American Civil War, espionage, military intelligence, and counterintelli­gence were important features. In previous wars, few trained intelligence operators had served the American forces. Efforts to gather military information had been haphazard and disorganized. The advent of the Pinkerton Service which operated with lIcClellan, the Federal Secret Service under Colonel Lafayette Baker, and a well-organized Confederate Secret Service put intelligence-gathering (and defensive counterintelligence) on a modernized basis.
                                                                                    Spies were called "scouts." As old as war was the rule that enemy spies, caught in disguise, faced death. They were beyoncl the pale of prisoner-of-war exemptions. The Civil War featured many heroic spy exploits. It also featured daring raids on enemy lines to take prisoners for interrogation.
                                                                                    The officer or man who gave his captors military infor­mation was as dangerous to country and cause as the
                                                                                    16
                                                                                    deliberate traitoƇ', So soldiers were enjoined "not to talk." Lieber set down the rule:
                                                                                    &bull Honorable men, when captured, will abstain from giv­ing to the enemy information concerning their own army, and the modern law of war permits no longer the use of "any violence against prisoners, in order to extort the desired information, or to punish them for having given false information.
                                                                                    The rule was easier to recite than observe. On the one hand, there was the interrogator ordered by his chiefs to acquire vital information-intelligence that might win a battle and save many lives. On the other hand, there was the prisoner, sworn to withhold information that might cost a battle and the lives of his countrymen. Here are the oPvosing forces for a cruel contest.
                                                                                    Despite Lieber's rules, prisoners were sometimes chained together, placed in brutal irons, or "bagged" (a suffocating canvas sack tied over the head). They were placed in soli­tary confinement and denied water. These vicious meas­ures were used more often to wring information from a cavtive than as disciplinary punishments. Such "third degrees" were conducted privately, usually by military police or Secret Service agents.
                                                                                    Backsliding there was on both sides. However, the gen­eral trend was toward more humane treatment of POW's. The going was slow, but the stel)s were in the right direc­tion.
                                                                                    THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS
                                                                                    III H:iG4, the Swiss philanthropist Henri Dunant wrote a book that set the stage for a conference at Geneva and the founding of the International Red Cross. The Red Cross offered relief to all combatants, regardless of the flag they served, All participants agreed that "the sanitary personnel might continue its duty in the presence of the enemy." 'l'hrough the determined campaigning of Clara Barton, the United States joined the convention in 1882, and the AmeriC'an Red Cross was organized.
                                                                                    17
                                                                                    Dunant's work inspired the founding of other prisoner­relief societies. In 1874, a conference was held in Bnls­sels at the instigation of the Russian Goyernment. Dele­gates of all the major European nations attended. A code based on Lieber's was projected. The Brussels code was not ratified, but it strongly influenced the first Hague Conference, which met at the turn of the century.
                                                                                    Czar Nicholas II sponsored the Hague Conference of 1899, which produced a Convention with respect to laws and customs of war on land. Representatives of 26 nations attended the conference. Discussed were disarmament proposals and the possibility of establishing a world court. The delegates negotiated various agreements relating to warfare and war prisoners.
                                                                                    The prisoner-of-war code adopted at The Hague was
                                                                                    based on the one proposed at Brussels. It embodied many of Lieber's original stipulations. Prisoners of war were to be considered as lawful and disarmed enemies.. They were captives of tIle hostile government and not in the power of the individual captors or jailors. It was agreed that unruly prisoners could be punished for insubordina­tion, but humane treatment was required.
                                                                                    Twenty-foul' of the attending powers ratified the Hague Convention. Signers included the United States, Germany, France, England, and Russia. A hopeful generation called the conference the "First Parliament of Man."
                                                                                    Acting on a Russian proposal, the Netherlands called a second Hague Conference in 1907. During this conference, the powers reaffirmed their adherence to the principles previously adopted.

                                                                                    THE FIRST TOTAL WAR
                                                                                    Another conference was in the making when the First 'World War exploded. German intentions seemed only too clear when the Kaiser's spokesman described a treaty with Belgium as a "scrap of paper."
                                                                                    The concept of total war-mustering an entire nation and its forces for the conflict-was not new. But in the mod­
                                                                                    18
                                                                                    ern sense, it was first advocated by a Prussian militarist before "World War 1. If rules and codes abetted the war effort, observe them. If they didn't, they were unrealistic and to be dispensed with. Total war was no gentleman's game. Any expedient that spelled victory was justifiable.
                                                                                    This concept was not entirely accepted by the High Com­mand, but the Prussian school generally endorsed a policy of Sclire7clichkeit (planned terror or "Frightfulness") to subdue defiant enemy peoples. Prussian "Frightfulness" was amateurish, and" not very effective. But it did repre­sent a 20th-century development in psychological warfare. Its usefulness was countered when it backfired in another area-propaganda warfare.
                                                                                    'l'he Germans introduced another innovation during World 'Val' 1. This new element could be called "political warfare." As distinguished from propaganda, it involved the process known today as political indoctrination.
                                                                                    At Limburg and Zossen, the Germans set up what were known as "political camps." To these camps were sent prisoners who seemed likely subjects for subversioll. The inllates were quartered in comfortable barracks. Instead of the normal prisoner ration they were fed the best food available. Tobacco and candy were plentiful. During the first eighteen months of the war, Irish prisoners were selected for these segregated camps.
                                                                                    As reported by Major H. C. Fooks in his book P1'isoners of War: "One commandant talked to his men and stated that the emperor was aware of the downtrodden state of Ireland, and wished that the Irish captives be placed in a separate camp, where they would be better fed and treated better than the English captives."
                                                                                    By ancl large, the Germans met with little Sllccess. Most of the Irish PO'V's resisted subversion. But the Germans were vioneering. They were setting a pattern for the future.
                                                                                    At war's end approximately 2,200,000 prisoners were in the hands of the Central (Germanic) Powers. The Allies were holding 615,900. The Americans had captured some 49,000 Germans and the Germans, 4,120 Americans. A total
                                                                                    19
                                                                                    of 1A7 Americans (lied in the enemy's prison camps. Few Americans escaped from Germany, but daring attempts H're made. On the whole, the American prisoners Yel'(

                                                                                    yell treated.
                                                                                    In reviewing ,Vor](1 ,,'ar I-the first total "Hr-one may note four major deH>]opments:
                                                                                    &bull Scientific intelligence ,,'arfare.
                                                                                    o Psychological warfare.

                                                                                    &bull Political warfare.
                                                                                    All dealt with tlw Illlm:lll mind, and all vou]d be IJrou,gbt to be'ar on future priso]l('rs of ,,'ar-in 'or]dWar II :llU] in I:orea,
                                                                                    THE SECOND TOTAL WAR
                                                                                    During ,Yol'ld "11' II a total of 12D.701 ,lllel'k'lllS ,,'ere captured by tile ,xis enemy.
                                                                                    A t this model German prisoner-oj-war camp neal' FVetzlar,
                                                                                    Gerll/allY, Allied ail'lI/cl/ captured dUl'ing lVorld lVal' 11 reecired e,rcellcnt eal'e.
                                                                                    20
                                                                                    T!tese liberaled Amerieall inmate! of a German prison hos­
                                                                                    liila! at PlidtSlltlle!t1 (World War 1J) show tlte cjfects of a "farratitJII diet.
                                                                                    Perllnps fenring reprisnl more than public opinion, the German military were fairly careful in handling American ]>O"s–with SOllIe ex('elltions. Americnns captured in Italy were gin'n silllilarly ('Orl'ect trentlllent.
                                                                                    In tile matter of prisoner interrogation, the German mili­tary seem to have behaved well enclUgll-at least toward the
                                                                                    21
                                                                                    Americans. There was none of the brutalizing that existed in such Japanese camps as Ofuna and Ashio, where Ameri­can submariners were tortured.
                                                                                    Tl1e Americans captured by General Homma's forces on Bataan Peninsula and at Corregidor were fortunate if they reacl1ed a prison camp alive. In tl1e Bataan Deatl1 March General "Vainwright's surrendered troops endured one of tl1e most excruciating ordeals of tl1e war. Britons and Aus­tralians caught at Singapore were treated witl1 similar brutality.
                                                                                    Airmen and submariners bore tl1e brunt of interrogation ordeals. Reason: tl1ey usually possessed information of more value to the enemy than an infantryman's. Tl1ey may have flown from a carrier or perhavs i>ailed from some l1id­den island base. The name of tl1e flattov, the location of tl1e base-this was vital intelligence. The submariner knew a dozen secrets: his sub's cruising range, its radar and sonar devices, its torpedo gear. One of tl1e best kept secrets of tl1e war, and one of the most important, was tl1e devth at which a U.S. submarine could operate.
                                                                                    So pilots and submarine sailors who were captured "got the works." The Japanese did not employ subtle interroga­tion methods. Prisoners were flogged and tortured. They were treated to such Oriental punishments as judo exverts and hatchet men could devise. The ordeal of one submarine skipper who "took it" hardly bears recital-cigarette burns, bamboo splinters under the fingernails. . .. But the Jap­anese did not extract from him the diving depth of U.S. submarines.
                                                                                    In the Pacific after the war, Americans found the graves of American destroyermen who had been beheaded and the bodies of other American prisoners who had been drenched with gasoline and burned alive.
                                                                                    These grim deeds, which the present Japanese Govern­ment condemns as heartily as we do, may be regarded as the exception. However, even where the treatment was more humane, the realities of war were making themselves felt. The blockaded Japanese were reduced to meager rations.
                                                                                    The Philippines and the Home Islands were undergoing non­Rtop bombardment. Consequently, food and medical supplies were at barrel-bottom. The 1'O",V's received the leftovers.
                                                                                    But beheadings, torture, the 1'alawan massacre, and the Bataan Death March were on the record. Like the Malmedy maRRacre in the Belgian Bulge, like Buchenwald and Belsen, they awaited an accounting. The outraged people of the United Nations demanded retributive justice.
                                                                                    The Germans applied other and seemingly more effective interrogation methods. Consider the testimony of Joachim Seharff, an interrogator stationed at Auswerstelle "'Vest, Obernrsel, Germany. This was the camp where all captured aviators (except Russian) were brought for questioning. From "all but a handful" of the 500 Americans questioned, Seharff obtained the information he was after. Scharff's methods were not so remarkable. It might be said that he killed his victims with kindness.
                                                                                    In the war there were many "Scharffs." Not all of them were on the German side. Adept Allied interrogators pumped information from case-hardened Luftwaffe pilots and U-boat skippers. In the closing days of the war they pumped their riYals-captnred Nazi interrogators-among them Joachim Scharff.
                                                                                    THE COMMUNIST SHADOW That coming events cast their shadows proved true in the Sovipt treatment of Axis prisoners taken during ",Vorld "'Val'
                                                                                    II. l<yen then the Soviets demonstrated methods that they :11(1 other Communist nations were to use in later years.
                                                                                    'l'he Communist pattern was beginning to unfold in Octo­ber 1!Jl1, when the Red (Soviet) Army sent a directive to all Communist interrogators, which read in part: "From the vpry moment of capture by the Reel Army, and during the entire period of captivity, the enemy enlisted men and offi­cerR IllUSt be under continuous indoctrination by our polit­ical workers and interrogators."
                                                                                    This was followed by a series of directives that explained in detail what type of information would be extracted from
                                                                                    23
                                                                                    German prisoners first, how the interrogations shoul<1' be conducted, and the manner and extent of the indoctrination. Analysis of these directives revealed that the Communists were more intereste<1 in economic all<l political inform:1tion than in purely military inform:1tion, though they di<1 not overlook military information. Military information was sought, as a rule, soon after the prisoner was capture<1 and while he was being enlcuated from the combat zone to the rear.
                                                                                    Physical Pressure. The COlllmlll1i

                                                                                    t intel'l'ogators ll.'<erl physical pressure against German PO",V's in an effort to lower their resistance to interrogation and to make the job of the interrogator easier. Physical pTCSSltTe, wilen IIscd, was dit'ectecl aga'inst sclectecl 'indidr/1lals ancl not '((!Jail/st gTOlipS ot p1"1soneTs. The Communists realized that vhysical pressure against a prisoner group would strengthen the unity of the group and defeat their purpose of obtaining information. Examvles of the types of physical IJreSsUre exerted against selected indiYidual prisoners are: Solitary confinement requiring the prisoner to assume rigid and un­comfortable positions for long periods of time: prolong-ed interrogation of the vrisoner by using-relays of fresh inter­rogators depriving the vrisoner of sufficient sleep or rest and denying the prisoner the use of the latrine.
                                                                                    ",Vhen the Soviet interrogators relaxed their pressure, it was not for humane reasons. They were being realistic. After all, the object of interrogation is to obtain informa­tion. A badly injured prisoner, or one too exhausted or confused to talk intelligently, is of no use to the interro­gator therefore, there are definite limits on the amount of physical pressure that can be exerted on a man under inter­rogation. It should be noted that such methods as those mentioned above were reserved for selected prisoners who were known, or thought, to possess important information they were not applied to the prisoner vopulation as a whole because of the obvious expense in both manpower and time.
                                                                                    The Indoctrination Process. Although some Cominnlli

                                                                                    t attempts at indoctrination of German prisoners were made near the front lines almost immediately after cavtul'e, the
                                                                                    24
                                                                                    organized, concerted indoctrination program began at per­mallent POlY ('tUllpS.
                                                                                    The basic technique was to disereflit not only Hitler but the whole German concept of goYernment. The ComIllunists attacked all German leaders and all German schools of thonght. Eyery social system exeellt communisIll was de­seribed as being against the common man. ComIllunism was adnmeed as the salYation of the workers and the guardian of peaee.
                                                                                    Propaganda. C(lll1Iilllllist propaganda was perhaps the most effeeti,-e part of the Communist indoctrination of German prisoners. 'l'he COIllmunists collected a large num­ber of diaries and letters of deacl German officers that indi­eated defeatist attitucles after Hitler's forces began to slow down on all fronts. These clocumeuts were disseminatecl to newly eavtured vrisoners. They were used to discredit and degrade the officer class and served to create doubt and to weakell the enlisted prisoners' faith in their officers and in Germany.
                                                                                    Germau prisoners were asked to make recordings, sup­poserlly to be broadcast to relatives in Germany. The re­corrlings were broadcast, instead, as propaganda to the ovvosing troops on the front line, and gave the impression that life with the Soviets was pleasant. These propaganda reeonlings caused Illany Germans to surrender to the Red Army.
                                                                                    "Peaee" was the basic theIlle of the Communists. How­ever, this theme was merely a frout to hide their true moth'es. In actuality, it meant peaee on Communist terms. Thron,

                                                                                    h fraud, deception, and some German collaborators, nllIllerous German prisoners signed "peace petitions," which the COIllmunists Imblished throughout the world. These "petitions" gave German soldiers and civilians the false iIll­pre"sion that only the COIllmunists wanted peace. As a matter of fact, the current Oommllnist "lwa,ce e1"1lsade'­st:1I'ted in their prisoner-of-war camp" in 1945.
                                                                                    Handling' of Japanese POW's. Communist methods of han­dling Japanese prisoners of war were generally the same as
                                                                                    25
                                                                                    those employed in handling German prisoners. The interro­gation procedures were the same, as were the techniques of indoctrination. The illegal and unjustified detaining of Jap, anese prisoners for years after hostilities had come to an end paralleled the illegal holding of German prisoners, some of whom were released as late as October 1955, more than ten years ajte1' the-ir capture. Others, so-called "war crim­inals," may never be released.

                                                                                    IN CONCLUSION
                                                                                    The interrogation and indoctrination methods used by the Soviets against German and Japanese prisoners of war fol­lowed the same pattern as those used against the Russian people. They are a Communist trademark, an established procedure peculiar only to communism.
                                                                                    At the close of 'VorIel 'Val' II, these facts had already been written on the pages of history. Unfortunately, llluch of what was on those pages was still a Comlllunist secret. If we had known all the facts and had taken them to heart, we could have spared oursel'es much grief during the Korean
                                                                                    'val'.
                                                                                    Chapter 3
                                                                                    OUTBREAK IN KOREA
                                                                                    A
                                                                                    rmed with Soviet weapons, North Korean Communist
                                                                                    forces invaded South Korea on 25 June 1950. Six days
                                                                                    later a battalion of the U.S. 24th Infantry Division was
                                                                                    rushed to Korea from Japan.
                                                                                    Thus began one of the strangest wars in American history. Our cause was simple and just, but our objectives were frequently confused in the public mind.
                                                                                    The Korean war had three aspects. There was the civil war aspect-North Koreans fighting South Koreans for con­trol of a divided country. There was the collective aspect­the first United Nations' attempt to stop a treaty-breaking aggressor. And there w

                                                                                    s the cold war aspect-the Western powers blocking the expansion of Commlmist imperialism.
                                                                                    The causes of the war, United Nations' objectives, and the need for American intervention were not clearly delineated in the public mind. This lack of understanding prevailed among American civilians and fighting men.
                                                                                    The Communists attempted to exploit to the fullest this condition both in international propaganda and in dealing with our prisoners of war.

                                                                                    THE COLD FACTS
                                                                                    The United States began a piecemeal bUild-up of the fight­ing forces in Korea. The first units to reach Korea were not well prepared for combat. However, by November 1950, the North Koreans had been completely beaten, their capital was in Allied hands, and their remnant forces' were scat­tered and disorganized. The victory seemed assured until the Chinese Red avalallChe crashed over the Yalu.
                                                                                    In late November, the Chinese opened a massive counter­offensive, hurling our forces into retreat. Early in Decem­ber, American and Allied forces were trapped at the Chang. Jin Reservoir. By fierce fighting they broke the trap and fought their way to Hungnam, where they were evacuated.
                                                                                    There ensued a vinter of back-to-wall battling in subzero cold.
                                                                                    It was during this grueling period, which began in .July 1950, that most of the American PO,Y's were captured.

                                                                                    "DEATH MARCHES"
                                                                                    The first ordeal the prisoners had to suffer-and often the worst–was the mardi to the PO,Y camps. 'l'he .Lorth Koreans frequently tied a prisoner's hands behind his back or bound his arIllS with wire. 'Younded prisoners ,"ere jammed into trucks that jolted, dripping blood, along broken roads. Many of the wounded received no medical attention until they reached the camp. Some were not attended to until days thereafter.
                                                                                    The marching prisoners vere likely to be beaten or kicked to their feet if they fell. A nunrlJer of the Communist oflicers "·ere bullwhip barbarians. The

                                                                                    ' were particularly brutal to
                                                                                    28
                                                                                    South Korean captives. Many ROK prisoners were forced to dig their own graves before they were shot-an old orien­tal custom applied to the execution of criminals. Some Americans, with their hands tied behind their backs, were shot by the enemy.
                                                                                    So the journeys to the prison camps were "death marches." On one of these marches, 700 men headed north. Before the camp was reached, 500 had perished.
                                                                                    The camps were what might be expected in a remote corner of Asia. Prisoner rations were scanty-a basic diet of rice occasionally leavened with some foul kind of soup. The average American could not stomach such fare. Sick­ness broke out in the camps, and many of the men suffered long sieges of dysentery.
                                                                                    The men suffered much from c0ld in winter and heat in summer. 'Water was often scarce bathing became difficult. Barracks were foul and unsanitary.
                                                                                    In the best of the camps, the men behind the barbed wire were sometimes given tobacco, a few.morsels of candy, occa­sional mail. A few Red Cross packages got through. How­ever, the enemy consistently refused to permit the Interna­tional Red Cross to inspect prisoner-of-war camps. There was good reason!

                                                                                    THE "BAD" CAMPS
                                                                                    In the worst of the camps, the prisoners existed by the skin of their teeth and raw courage. Men in the "bad" camps were known to lose 50 pounds in weight in a matter of weeks.
                                                                                    The "bad" camps included the so-called "Bean Camp" near Suan, a camp known as "Death Valley" near Pukchin, an­other camp called "The Valley," apparently in the vicinity of Kanggye. Among the worst camps were the "Interroga­tion Center" near Pukchin and a neighboring disciplinary center called "The Caves." This last was literally composed of caverns in which the men were confined. Here they 'Were forced to sleep without blankets. Their food 'Was thrown at them. There were no latrine facilities. In "The Caves" the
                                                                                    29
                                                                                    prisoners were retlueetl to a tlegTE'e of miselT n]](l degradn­tion almost unbelievable. 'I.'hose sent to "Tile eaves" we.re prisoners accused of insubordination, breaking camp rules, attempting to escape, or committing some otller so-called crime. 'rhe testimony of sun'ivors suggests tlwt tl1E' "crime" was seldom fitted by the punisllllwnt.
                                                                                    Tile primnry interest of the Korth Koreans was to impress United Kations captives and Korean civilians with their "superiority" over "'Vestern barbarians." TllPY operated on the theory that "might is right" and demonstrated that "right" by some of the most inhumane types of atrocities and brutalities that "'estern civilization has seen. Ƈ.Ɔ im­press the civilian pOlHllation, the Korth Korean Communists placed American capOn's on display in the village squares of Korea. They beat and even murdered exhausted, sick. :lllcl wounded Americans who could not defend themselves.
                                                                                    J:Iistreatment of American prisoners by the Korth Koreans had no relationship to interrogation and political indodrina­tion. Ac:tually, the Korth Koreans were not primarily inter­ested in collecting intelligence information or exploiting the prisoners of war. 'I.'hey did not conduct an organized pro­gram of indoctrination.
                                                                                    They did conduct some interrogations of United Nations prisoners. These were limited, crude, and aimless, and did not produce enough tactical or political information to con­stitute an achievement. One of the stock questions was, "Why did the United States invade North Korea 'I" Most Americans questioned by the Koreans were asked, "How many automobiles has each American?" 'I'he manner in Which the Koreans conducted their limited interrogations, using tlll'eats and beatings, usually resulted in opposition by the prisoners rather than cooperation.
                                                                                    CAPTURE BY THE CHINESE
                                                                                    'I.'he brutal manner in which the North Koreans treated captives became known to thousands of the United Nations forces. As a result, many Americans felt that capture by the Chinese would bring similar treatment. Therefore, when an American captive of the Chinese was not shot or other­
                                                                                    30
                                                                                    trained and indoctrinated themselves in communism and all of its techniques was demonstrated by their bitter criticism of everything American and by repeated references to the "capitalists."
                                                                                    After the initial contact with the enemy. some Americans seemed to believe that the enemy was sincere and harmless. They relaxed and permitted themselves to fall into a well­disguised trap by a cunning enemy.
                                                                                    The Chinese Communist leaders, military and political, were educated-many, in the United States.c Many also spoke English fluently. Most of them possessed a fairly good understanding of Americans and of the other nation­alities that composed the United Nations forces. They were shrewd, and they recognized the potential value to the Oom­munist cause of converting prisoner-of-war camps into lab­oratories in which they could experiment with various methods of group-handling and indoctrination of United Nations prisoners, especially Americans.
                                                                                    THE FffiST BRIEFING
                                                                                    Shortly after capture, American prisoners were escorted to a point some distance behind the front lines. The Ohinese used these points for assembling and briefing the prisoners before marching them to permanent prison compounds. When assembled at the collecting point, the prisoners were briefed by an English-speaking Ohinese Communist officer.
                                                                                    The officer told the prisoners that the war in Korea was a civil war, like the Civil War in the United States in 1861. The prisoners were told that the United States was the real aggressor in Korea and that the American capitalists forced other nations to send troops to Korea to help fight a war for Wall Street. The prisoners were told that the military aggression by the United States so angered the Ohinese people that the "workers" of China decided to "volunteer" for military duty and come to the rescue of the North Korean people. The prisoners were told that the war in Korea was illegal because the Oongress of the United States did not declare war against the People's Republic in North Korea.
                                                                                    32
                                                                                    The Communist officer further told the prisoners that, in view of the fact that the war wrrsnot legal, the Chinese and K:or-ean peoplewonld not consider thecaptives:,pl"isoRers of war but rather as "students." As students they would be reeducated .by the Chinese and K:orean People's Govern­ments. The reeducation about which the enemy spoke meant indoctrination-Communist indoctrination.

                                                                                    PERMANENT CAMPS
                                                                                    After the prisoners.had undergone the briefing at the collecting points and had been identified and tagged, they were evacuated to one of the permanent camps in North Korea. The evacuation under the Chinese was more orderly and less ruthless than umler the North Koreans-another instance of the Communist deception technique in operation. The sick and wounded were assisted by Korean civilians who used carts to help them along the marches. The food en route did not meet American standards but was far better than the food given prisoners by the Koreans. Medical care for the marching prisoners was poor, but the Chinese made what they had available to the more serious cases of sick and wounded.
                                                                                    After arriving at permanent camps, the prisoners were immediately organized into units comparable in size to United States Army units. They were grouped into squads, platoons, and companies, each under a unit leader. Orig­inally, the leaders were selected by the Chinese Communists on the basis of leadership qualities, military bearing, and a loud, commanding voice. This manner of selection, however, was discarded almost immediately because the units were run too much like regular military organizations, and this was contrary to the Communists' strategy. The enemy re­examined the original leaders, checked their backgrounds, and determined which ones could be depended upon to lead the units in the way the Communists wanted them led. In many instances, the unit leaders were studied as potential group leaders and monitors for indoctrination classes. Obvi­ously, the objective behind all this was to gain and maintain complete control over the prisoners.
                                                                                    33
                                                                                    After the Chinese had established a POW organization that would satisfy their purposes, they began a conditioning process designed to render the prisoners more vulnerable to their propaganda assaults and to their political indoctrina­tion program. The enemy's initial objective was to gain the prisoners' neutrality, if not cooperation, by undermining their sense of duty, their friendships, and their democratic ideals. To attain this, the enemy had no set of rules. No trick was too dirty or mean, no weakness too unjust to ex­ploit, no threat too violent 01' subtle to be used again and again to batter the resistance of the prisoners and to crush their will.
                                                                                    Fear, threats, confusion, tension, isolation, retaliation, informers, and censorship of mail were used effectively by the Chinese Communists. Since these control measures played such an important part, and since they will probably be used again and again in any future situation of this kind, it is important to explain some of them in detail.
                                                                                    SPREADING FEAR
                                                                                    The Chinese Communists first generated fear among the prisoners by warning them that they might be strafed by our own planes in Korea. This was not an unfounded warn­ing, because we had ail' superiority in Korea at the time, and the Chinese did not report accurately the locations of the various PO'V inclosures. This warning created a pecul­iar fear in the minds of the prisoners-fear of harm by friendly forces. Stories of atrocities and brutalities, a few of which were based on fact, were deliberately spread. In this instance, the implication was that in some rare and unusual situation, the enemy might find it necessary to re­sort to torture, but if he did it would be as a last resort for the sake of discipline. The enemy spread rumors that some prisoners might be shipped to Manchuria or to China and that the trip might be a one-way affair.
                                                                                    Another rumor deliberately. planted and spread by the. enemy was that if prisoners did not cooperate wiJh the Chinese and Korean People's Governments for peace, some might not be repatriated. This inspired the greatest fear in
                                                                                    ·34
                                                                                    the prisoners-of spending an indeterminate period as pris­oners of the ComIllunists.
                                                                                    Playing on basic human instinC't and emotions, the enelllY started a rumor that food might be withheld from those prisoners who did llot cooperate with the enemy. 'I'his rumor, coupled with another that even the primitive medical care would be withheld in case of illness, intensified the normal fear of siekness and disease. This fear increased further when the prisoners considered the fact that they were liVing under conditions far below the normal sanitary standards in the United States and other modern countries of the world.
                                                                                    Perhaps the most significant and destructive fear was fear of the unknown. The Chinese played upon it in the hope of redueing the resistance of the prisoners. 'I'his caused some prisoners to weaken and a few to accede to Communist de­mands. An analysis of this aspeet of group-handling by the Chinese COllUllunists reH

                                                                                    als that the prisoners actually
                                                                                    were more afraid of the unknown than of the things theycould see, feel, and hear.
                                                                                    INFORMING
                                                                                    One of the most VICIOUS and despicable tactics employedby the Chinese Communists was to organize nets of in­formers. The enemy had two types of informers. One ,yasthe unwitting informer. He had no specific instructionsfrom the enemy nor, as a matter of fact, did he realize thathe was serving as an informer. He was called to the enemyheadquarters at various times and engaged in general con­versation. The conversation would alwi1

                                                                                    -s lead to prisonlife and prisoner actiyities. Through careless talk, the pris­oner gave the enemy information about other pi'isoners andunwittingly informed on them.
                                                                                    The other type was the regular informer, who reportedto the enemy at night or at other specific hours designatedby the enemy. He gave the enemy information about otherprisoners through weakness or to enhance his position in theeyes of the enemy. In certain instances a regular informerdeliberately gave the enemy false information about some
                                                                                    prisoner or prisoners, which resulted in unwarranted pun­ishment or hardship for the victims. As a result, prisonerswere tried and severely punished for offenses about whichthey knew nothing-the work of the informer.
                                                                                    The position of the informer was so insecure that he hadto report any questionable act in case someone else informedon him, thus causing him to lose his position. These "ques­tionable" acts included such indefinable misconduct as "nn­wholesome" or "hostile" attitude, the recording of "impropernotes" at an indoctrination lecture, and expressing "a capi­talistic philosophy." The type of prisoner recruited by theenemy for this work was the opportunist, who stopped atnothing to further his own gains.
                                                                                    In return for informing,the Chinese enemy permitted him to conduct various activ­ities, snch as selling food to hungry prisoners. The informerswere feared to some extent by the other prisoners, but theirattitude and conduct more frequently were viewed withanger, shame, and dis6'ust.
                                                                                    36
                                                                                    IN CONCLUSION
                                                                                    Despite the wide publicity given to informers and collabo­rationists, they did not set the pattern for our fighting men in Korea. The large majority of American prisoners resisted the enemy in the highest tradition of the service and of our country. Of those who resisted, some were singled out for brutal treatment. Some of these cases will be discussed in later chapters. In the long run, however, those Americans who I:esisted fared about as well physically and materially as the few who chose t:p,lil road of least resistance. And they had this decided advantage-the personal satisfaction of having acted in the highest moral tradition of a nation under God.
                                                                                    37
                                                                                    Chapter 4
                                                                                    "PROGRESSIVES"
                                                                                    AND "REACTIONARIES"

                                                                                    W
                                                                                    ho were the "progressives" and who were the "reac­tionaries" ?
                                                                                    These words took on special meanings in the prison camps of North Korea. American fighting men who considered themselves liberals were proud to be called "reactionaries" for demonstrating firm resistance in a Communist prison camp. On this point, they saw eye to eye with their more conservative buddies. And both liberal and conservative POW"s looked with contempt on the P01V who came to be known as a "progressive."
                                                                                    How did a man become a "progressive"?
                                                                                    If he began to show the "propel' spirit"-to cooperate with his captors-he was lectured and handed Communist litera­ture. A docile prisoner who read the literature and listened. politely to the lectures was graduated to a better class.
                                                                                    Finally he might be sent to "Peaceful Valley." In this lenient camp the food was relatively good. Prisoners might even have tobacco. And here they were given all sorts of Marxian propaganda.
                                                                                    The graduates from "Peaceful Valley" and others who accepted Communist schooling were called "progressives." And there were shades of meaning!
                                                                                    THE "PROGRESSIVE" ROLE
                                                                                    A British study described a "progressive" POW as one who accepted the political, economic and social gospel of Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin-even if he was not quite sure what this was. In order to be fully accepted as a "pro­gressive," however, the prisoner had to do more than pas­sively accept communism. He had to become a Communist propagandist and assist the Chinese, not only by giving them all the military information he had but also by acting as an
                                                                                    38
                                                                                    informer, reyealing the plans and thoug11tS of his fellow prisoners, and helping to spread COItlInunisIll among them and among his family and friends at home. Thus he would show that he had becOIl1e "politically conscious."
                                                                                    'l'lie seeond allil more literal application of the "progres­siYe" label beeallle apparent in the systematic exvloitation of a prisoner's serykes once he had giyen in on just one issue. Often the first bit of eooperatioll with the enemy seemeel minor in nature and the prisoner eould rationalize, with the captor's help, to justify the act. But the first eon­cession vayeel the way for a second, and so on down the line. "l,Vith each "progressiye" step dOWll collaboration road, the chance of turning back becaml' more remote. 'rhus SOUle vrisoners learned too late that they couldn't be just "a little bit" of a collaborator so long as the COIIlmunists wanted their senices.
                                                                                    The "prog]'essin

                                                                                    s" were called UpOll to deliYer lectures, write pamphlets, and make propaganda broadcasts. They
                                                                                    &bull..39
                                                                                    wrote speeches condemning capitalism and "American ag­gression in Korea." They organized a group known as "Peace Fighters."
                                                                                    On a percentage basis, fewer officers than enlisted men were "progressives." However. the officers' influence, unfor­tunately, was strong on the enlisted men. "If the Captain can do it, why can't I?" "If the Colonel signs a peace peti­tion and orders the rest of us to do it, we have to follow orders, don't we?" Altogether, the officers and enlisted men who resisted were on a spot. That most of them refused to join the "progressives" (and rejected a promise, sometimes unfulfilled, of better food, minor luxuries, and mail call) says something for the spirit of both officers and enlisted men.
                                                                                    The Communists soon learned that Americans were not readily sold on communism. Even those of lesser education, or perhaps having little appreeiation of their own country's principles, were by no means eager to accept this foreign ideology or to submit to it. The early "converts" turned out to be simply opportunists seeking to better their own lot without regard to the consequences for their fellow pris­oners.

                                                                                    THE "REACTIONARY" LABEL
                                                                                    Ho,v did the "reactionary" fare? He could expect to be separated from those prisoners "'hom the enemy deemed to be more susceptible. 'Yhile there was good chance the "re­actionary" would experienc'e some solitary confinement, in time the Communists found themselves short of facilities for handling all resisters in that manner. Thus small "reac­tionary" groups formed, increasing in size as time ,vent by, isolated to prevent their interference with the subjugation program in the "progressive" camps. Brought together by virtue of their demonstrated resistance to the enemy, these were men who could, despite any personal differences alllong themselves, present a united front against the enemy and help each other survive.
                                                                                    Still, the "reactionary" label ,vas n6 guarantee that the
                                                                                    prisoner was permanently free from enemy efforts to sub­
                                                                                    40
                                                                                    jugate him. Any American who signed a propaganda leaflet, a peace petition, or a gerIll-war eonfession was a big f('ather in the enemy's hat. Logieally, the higher the rank of the prisoner the more useful would be sueh serviee to the enemy. Also, the "breaking" of a senior offieer, a "notorious reac­tionary," or anyone who had demonstrated leadership and other strong qualities that had earned the respeeot: and trust of fellow prisoners, was of tremenelous benefit in the COIll­munist effort to convince other prisoners (anel people baek home) that resistance was futile. For that reason, various ''reactionaries'' were subjected to pressures often loosely refel'l'ed to as "brainwashing."
                                                                                    Breakdown of leadership was what the enemy wanted. Ofiieers were usually segregated. "Progressives" were placed in leadership positions. And if the enemy's .appointees weren't obeyed by the other pOIV'S, punishments were in store for the "insubordinate prisoners."
                                                                                    THAT LONESOME ROAD
                                                                                    "'hat did the "progressiye" expect to gain in the long run … after the Korean war was oyer? "Vas he thinking that far ahead?
                                                                                    It is doubtful that any of the "progressiyes" beeame sin­cere converts to the Communist ideology. Even in the ease of the turncoats-21 American prisoners who refu

                                                                                    ed re­patriation and remained in Red China-the seemingly logi­eal assumption that they lw,d been c<l!1verted has pro'ell erroneous. Perhaps this· misconeeption was fostered by frequent references to them during the repatriation proeess as ,·those who chose cOlllmunism." Indications are that this misleading phrase was introduced by Communist publica­tions.
                                                                                    In any event, reports by returned American prisoners on the actions of those men indicated that they remained for quite different reasons. The subsequent return of some of the 21 further refutes the idea that they "dlOse eommu­nism." One of these, interviewed in Hong Kong and asked why he stayed in Red China in the first place, replied, ".&bull&bull I'll tell you this much-it wasn't for political reasons."
                                                                                    ,Yhy did the 21 refuse repatriation? Perhaps, in some cases, they feared vengeance at the hands of men they had betrayed, or at the hands of friends of men who had died because of their treason.
                                                                                    THE LAST MILE
                                                                                    Having cut himself off from his own country and his own people, what can the collaborator expect from the Commu­nists? The answer became apparent during the Korean war and it is just as true today.
                                                                                    The Communists know that the turncoat will be no more trustworthy for them than he was for llis own side. The enemy cannot expect to [lain actua.l allegiance from a col­la,bomtO?" if for no other reason tllan tllat lie has none to [live. For a chan[le of alle[lianee, the ultimate possibility of colla,boration, wouldneeessItate a willingness to die for the enemy. Obviously, the prisoller 1[ho betrays his Olen people
                                                                                    out ot teal' tor his lite isn't going to be willing to die tor anyone else, either.
                                                                                    :1ཆ matter where collaboration begins, the Communists continue to press a POlY for further services until they have no further use for him. At that point they drop him and no one is anxious to pick him up. Certainly his prison-mates will lwve little use for him, since his collaboration with the enem

                                                                                    '. no matter what it was, will have in some manner inflieted further hardship on them. Perhaps even more illl­pOl'tant, from the standpoint of his chances for survival, the collaborator will have little respect for himself.
                                                                                    'Yhatever the Communists may promise in exchange for collaboration, their payoff will be smalL Any slight advan­tage the collaborator might gain as a result of service to the enemy will be of no value over an extended period of im­prisonment. In the long run, the resister and the col­laborator may fare about the same in the purely physieal sense. But psyehologically, there will be a big differenee. For the man who gives in will have several handieaps: A sense of failure, or remorse: the loss of respect, both self­respect and that of his fellow prisoners, that in time may well destroy his ,vill to live. In any case, "Man does not live by bread alone," In a Communist prison, where bread is likely to be sean'e, snstenance of the spirit-hope, faith, and Will-may well be the determining factor in survivaL
                                                                                    Having kept faith, the "reactionary" is the winner.
                                                                                    505596°󈞧—-4 A3
                                                                                    Chapter 5
                                                                                    INTERROGATION

                                                                                    A
                                                                                    pow should be prepared for brutal treatment if inter­rogated soon after capture by an enemy seeking military information of immediate value. Tactical inter­rogation, wherein time is of the essence, is more likely than any other to include severe physical torture. Certainly it will include many threats, probably beginning with the first refusal on the part of the captive to give information.
                                                                                    During the Korean war, practically all Air Force POW's were given special attention. The primary objective of the Chinese Communists was to use them for propaganda pur­poses, particularly for germ-warfare propaganda. How­ever, they were grilled also for military information.
                                                                                    Not only in fliers but in all POvV's, the Chinese interroga­tors tried to create a fear that, by some mysterious process, they would break under questioning. The idea of "brain­washing" was spread by the Communists to create the false
                                                                                    impression that their method and manner of conducting interrogations were irresistible.

                                                                                    METHODS ARE KNOWN
                                                                                    Actually, the methods used by the Communists to obtain information are not new, mysterious, or irresistible. They have been used for centuries. These methods are based on the simple idea of progressively weakening an individual's physical and moral strength. They are not based on some weird psychological theory. Numerous persons have faced Communist interrogation and withstood so-called Commu­nist "methods" for weeks, months, and even years, without "breaking" or even demonstrating fear of any kind. Many of those persons have returned without showing any IJecul­iar or unusual ill-effects as a result of their experiences.
                                                                                    Communist interrogation of United Nations prisoners of war in Korea revealed this significant principle-that Communist objectives frequently limit the use of physical
                                                                                    eoprdon or torturp. The intplTogator knows that thp pris­oner eannot answpr (] uestions after he is dead. AliYe, re­J'nsiug to yield, the prisoner remains a potclltial sourep oj' iu[ormation to his captors: dead he is worthless. Although the Commnnists will attempt to make use oj' a prisoner's nntural anxiety and J'ear, most oj' the prisoners who are subjP(·tp(l to Communist interrogation will not be physieally tortured, (,yen though they reJ'usp to cooperate with the pm·lll

                                                                                    ·. Ƈ'he rpnsons for this "nry. but a "ery important one is that the Comillunists are praetiC'al in their approaeh to illtprrogation. The

                                                                                    ' learned during their earl

                                                                                    ' reigu of terror in thp SOYiet <'nion that physieal "iolence. morp fre(llwntly than not, stiffens gronp l'l'sistance, rather than the rp'prse.
                                                                                    NATURE OF INTERROGATION
                                                                                    Ill[('l'!'og"ation has some charnC'tpristics oj' both a sdpnce nud au art. It rpsemblps a sdenee ,,"hen conducted by a
                                                                                    45
                                                                                    shrewd and trained interrogator who knows what he wants and proceeds in an orderly, logical, and determined fashioll.
                                                                                    Interrogation resembles an art when the interrogator establishes a relationship between himself and the person being interrogated wherein the latter is subtly persuaded to cooperate in giving information beyond the simple answer­ing of questions. The interrogator, by demonstrating pa­tience, tolerance, sympathy, and understanding, is able to obtain cooperation in achieving his desired results.
                                                                                    Some of the Chinese Communist interrogators in Korea were skilled and possessed the drive, tolerance, and patience to obtain the information they were after. Often they knew English and were well-informed about life in the United States. Some had been educated in the United States and were familiar with the economic and political institutions of the United States. In fact, some of the enemy personnel in the interrogation section were better informed on certain aspects of American life than many of the prisoners.
                                                                                    From the first interrogation, the COlllmunists tried to confuse the American PO",V's into questioning the sincerity of our objectives in Korea. "Divide and conquer" was the insidious keynote. Only a few Americans were casualties in this battle to capture their minds in the PO",V camps. The Communists, nevertheless, regarded their interrogation and indoctrination program as an effective weapon in exploiting American POvV's.
                                                                                    FIRST INTERROGATION
                                                                                    The Communists began their interrogation soon after a PO",V was captured. ·With a downed flier, it began almost immediately after he was picked up. ",Vith other PO",V's, it began at the collecting point where they were brought to­gether. However, the first conversation was more like an interview than a real interrogation:
                                                                                    Generally, the enemy asked the prisoners several routine questions and a few questions on the military situation in the United Nations areas. After completing his direct inter­rogation, the enemy distributed numerous forms and told the prisoners to sign them. Some of these forms carried American, International Red Cross, or one of many other headings, most of which were invalid. In addition to sign­ing and completing these forms, the prisoners were told to sign just their names on blank pieces of paper, which the enemy collected and subsequently used for propaganda purposes.
                                                                                    Many Americans signed the various forms because they did not know or believe at the time that the enemy would use the contents of the forms for purposes of incrimination. During the initial interrogation, many Americans talked freely with the enemy and answered most of the questions asked. The lack of resistance during the initial interroga­tion by the enemy resulted from the apparent friendliness the Chinese had displayed when the prisoners were captured.
                                                                                    At the various collecting points were Chinese whose duties were to screen the completed forms and record the results of the initial interrogations. They studied the answers to the questions on the various forms and compiled a per­sonnel file on each prisoner, which included the question­naires, results of the initial interrogation, and the blank slips of paper on which the prisoners had signed their names. These files were later forwarded to the camps to which the prisoners were assigned, and the results of all subsequent interrogations were added to them.
                                                                                    An analysis of the results of the interrogations enabled the Communists to select or determine the subjects or atti­tudes that should be emphasized and exploited in the indoc­trination program. In this way they could hand-tailor the indoctrination given to the various groups of prisoners.
                                                                                    At the permanent camps, appropriate physical facilities were provided by the prison command. The United States­British Prisoner of 'Val' Camp Number 5, located near the city of Pyoktong, North Korea, was the model for all other camps in Korea. The interrogation sections were located in the camp headquarters, usually near the commanding officer or near the security officer. They were equipped with wire recorders, exposed and hidden microphones,two­way mirrors, and a version of a lie detector. The interroga­tors were Chinese officers, assisted by Chinese women,
                                                                                    47
                                                                                    whose duties primarily were to record interrogations on paper in Chinese characters and maintain accurate rosters of prisoners who had and who had not been interrogated. The sections operated on a 24-hour basis and conducted some of the most fruitful interrogations at night.
                                                                                    PRETENSE IS FUTILE
                                                                                    Alone and disarmed, what can one man do under such interrogation? If he yields, he knows he is disgracing him­self and undermining his country's safety. Yet when he holds out, he knows he may be in for rough treatment. Is there an easier way out?
                                                                                    Just after the Korean war, there was talk about sueh a solution. One suggestion was that members of our Armed Forces should be instructed, if taken prisoner, to "confess to anything." Not only would this take the pressure off the PO. it was argued, but it would also confuse the enemy since he would not know where truth left off and fiction began.
                                                                                    This strategy was to haye included the preliminary announcement to the world that our men would do this if captured, thereby "nullifying" the propaganda value to the enemy of any such things as false confessions and peace petitions. In its original form, the "confess-to-anything" fOl'mula made clear that it was to apply only to such things as false confessions and propaganda. In the realm of military information and maintenance of unquestionable faith with fellow captives, there could be no deviation from a rigid standard.
                                                                                    It was a fine theory! However, experience has shown that once a prisoner started answering questions, the skilled interrogator could be certain of gaining some information from him if he had sufficient time. By no means does this mean, as some have contended, that an interrogator can get all that he wants from a prisoner in due time. It does mean, however, that the prisoner who tries to outmaneuYer the interrogator is certain to divulge some information.
                                                                                    Baiting a trap for the POW, the Communists will allow him to "get away" with pretense during interrogation­
                                                                                    48
                                                                                    eyen encourag"e it-for the simple reason that they want the prisoner to develop a habit of pretending. One official study of Communist methods in attempting to elicit false "germ warfare" confessions from captive American fliers describes them as something of a training process. The victim was not simply confronted with demands for a false "confes­sion": he was enticed into pretense. First the subject of "germ warfare" was discussed in very general terms, with broad hints that the prisoner knew quite well what it was all about. Suggestions were made that if the prisoner "had something on his conscience," it would be to his own advan­tage to "unburden himself." This could go on for days or "'eeks, until the prisoner himself Blight ask if he was being accused of such activity. To this, the enemy would often respond with something to this effect: "I have accused you of nothing. Howeyer, if you have something on your conscience …!"
                                                                                    The prisoner was left to figure out for himself exactly "'hat was wanted. If he did figure it out and if he did comply, he soon learned that "tongue-in-cheek" compliance was not enough. He must learn to speak, write, and act as if his false confession-hmyever preposterous-was en­tirely true. Since he was "confessing" to a "horrible atrocity," he must also pretend feelings of guilt, shame, and eyen repentance.
                                                                                    ""here such pretense supported Communist propaganda, as in the case of a "confession" to germ warfare, the Com­munists could-and did-go along with it indefinitely. But where they had encouraged the PO,V to lie as a way of trapping him, they showed no leniency when the conflict in his stories became apparent.
                                                                                    The prisoner whose lies led him into the Communist trap was considered a more grievous offender than the man who refused to answer, for in addition to wasting the interroga­tor's time he proved that he was "insincere" and "had not learned the truth." An interrogator was more likely to desire personal vengeance against the prisoner who "sold" him on false information than against the prisoner who maintained a position of respectful noncompliance.
                                                                                    49
                                                                                    SUMMARY
                                                                                    The means employed by the Communists to obtain infor­mation from United Nations prisoners of war were not new, unique, mysterious, or irresistible. They were recognized and understandable methods of undermining an individual's physical and moral strength. By deception, and by other tricks, the Communists obtained apparently useless informa­tion from prisoners who did not realize that all information is important. The success of the enemy's program of in­terrogation depended, to a large extent, on the prisoners' lack of knowledge of what was happening to them-a factor on which the Communists have always relied.
                                                                                    The American fighting man should remember that the Communist interrogator is not a superman with mystic powers and unique methods by which he can accomplish the impossible. He is not all-knowing, nor is he all-powerful, eyen when dealing with a seemingly powerless Yictim, such as a prisoner of war.
                                                                                    It would be foolish, however, to underestimate the skill of the Communist interrogator. Effective resistance to in­terrogation, as one ex-prisoner has put it, is not so much a matter of outwitting the interrogator as of otttlasting him­by determined, steadfast refusal to cooperate in the face of all manner of treachery, threat, coercion, and even death.
                                                                                    Those who resisted completely the most skilled Communist interrogators deserve the gratitude and admiration of every American, for they are examples of courage, determination, and endurance.
                                                                                    Chapter 6
                                                                                    INDOCTRINATION

                                                                                    W
                                                                                    hen plunged into a Communist indoctrination mill,
                                                                                    the average American PO'V was under a serious
                                                                                    handicap. Enemy political officers tried to force him to
                                                                                    read Marxian literature, to participate in debates. He was
                                                                                    prodded to tell what he knew about American politics and
                                                                                    history. Lectures -study groups -discussion groups -a
                                                                                    blizzard of propaganda and hurricanes of violent oratory
                                                                                    were all a part of the enemy teehnique.
                                                                                    To many American prisoners this procedure came as a complete surprise and they were unprepared. That some refused to read the literature, participate in the debates, or engage in politieal discussions with their skilled captors is a tribute to their courage.
                                                                                    But to a frightened, confused, and hungry prisoner, depri"ed of leadership and guidance, these initial steps by the Communist enemy were effective. Although most pris­oners did not realize what was happening to them as the program progressed and while they were being subjected to interrogation, there were no secrets about what the enemy planned to do along the line of "reeducating" the prisoners. It was reiterated numerous times that they were "students," and, as students, they were going to be reeducated along Communist lines. This fact was made clear at the very beginning. It was never altered.
                                                                                    Basically, the indoctrination program had two main objectives. One was to indoctrinate completely a smaH, select group of prisoners in the actual theory and practice of communism as a world conspiracy. The second objective was to undermine the faith and trust of the other prisoners in their country, their government, and its 'political leaders -not to make Communists out of all the prisoners.
                                                                                    In attempting to achieve the first objective, the Commu­nists selected the prisoners on whom they felt they could depend, gave them special training, tutoring, and counsel­
                                                                                    51
                                                                                    ing, and extended them special treatment. This was in keeping with the ComllJunist concept, as advaneed by Lenin, that a small, select, disciplined group should lead the masses. As an incentiTe for the "chosen few" to apply themselves to the task of betraying their country and their fellow prisoners, the Communists told them that tlH'y were the "liberators" of thc nHlsses, and prollJised tlH'm positions of leadership in the 17nited States-after a Commlmist­(ljreeted revolution had replaced our democratic system with a Communist forlll of government.
                                                                                    In pursuing their second objective, the Communists con­sistently smeared the 17nited States. Any imperfections of our political and economic institutions were (listorted com­pletely out of proportion. At no time was mention of the true democratic principles of the 17nited States Government permitted in discussions. In addition to attacking Ameri­can concepts of democra('y, the COIllmunists launelled attack
                                                                                    52
                                                                                    a[U'!' 1Itt1l('k :lg"ill"r..lll('rican statesillen by nallle, c!1Iillling
                                                                                    th1lt tll('y we!'e the ('bid' pNpetrators of war and e"il.
                                                                                    Ƈཇe COllllllunists felt that if they eoul<l su('('eed in the se('ond ol,jedil-e–sub,-erting the prisoners' loyalty–·-tlwse AllIericans would be less opposed to eOItlIllunislll after their repatriation to the United States. The COllllllunists also re:lsoned that these ex-pl'isoners would be mo!'e likely to be f'

                                                                                    -lllp:lthetie to all.v C"ltllllunist eonspiraey against the l'nited St:ltes. Part of their plan ('ailed for the thoroughly indoetrinated prisonerf', upon their return to the United Srltes. to 1ISSllIll(, leadership of the snbverted ex-prisoners alld lII'ge tI,Plll to snppo!'t tile C"'lllllllllist eonspiraey through the instrunwnt:llity of the COlllIllunist Party.
                                                                                    OTHER OBJECTIVES III support of these two main but general ohjel'tiYes, there were sppelfie (J!JjeetiYes that had a more direct: e[[eet on the lin's of the prisoners. ƇƆ faeilitate internal eontrol of the pris"ner p"pulation, the Chinese COlllIllunists at­tE,mptecl to org:lni%e a net of informers to relay to the camp
                                                                                    53
                                                                                    authorities information concerning the activities of other prisoners. Through informers, the Chinese Communists were able to thwart many escape attempts. Informers also furnished the Chinese Communists information concerning prisoners who were actively resisting indoctrination.
                                                                                    Another objective was to recruit collaborators to assist the Chinese Communists in implementing the indoctrination program. These collaborators would give propaganda lec­tures, write articles, and attempt to talk other prisoners into signing "peace petitions," surrender leaflets, and other types of propaganda.
                                                                                    Still another objective, which fortunately had no success, was to recruit potential agents to perform espionage or sub­versive activities for the Communists after re]latriation. The few who agr-eed to work for the Communists realized soon after their repatriation that they had been duped and notified the American authorities of this Communist ]llot.
                                                                                    COMMUNIST FRONTS
                                                                                    Every Communist activity in North Korea was geared for one general purpose-to support the overall mission of political indoctrination. Early in the war, for example, there were various Peace Committees, whose job was to smear America as a warmonger and to laud Communists as champions of peace. In addition to operational committees for indoctrination, the Communists established a number of committees for the administration of the prisoners. These were: Sanitation Committee, Daily Life Committee, Athletic Committee, Mess Committee, and a Committee for Prisoner Morale. The membership of these committees, like that of the others, was made up of prisoners. At all levels of committee activities there were Communist politi­cal advisers who insured discipline, control, and nondevia­tion from the established routines of the program.
                                                                                    Most Americans have heard about Communist-front organizations. A Communist front is an organization con­ceived by Communists, inspired by Communists,controlled by Communists, and directed by Comlllunists, but which has as a "front" some popular or ]lseudo-patriotic cause. The
                                                                                    various committees in the prison camps in North Korea served as fronts for the Communist enemy. POvV's who became members served the Communist enemy in North Korea in the very same manner in which other naive individ­uals have seryed the Communist conspiracy outside of prison camps.
                                                                                    PHASES OF INDOCTRINATION The Communists administered their indoctrination pro­gram in two general phases. The first can be called the preparatory phase, the second the implementation phase.
                                                                                    Preparatory Phase. This phase, a "softening-up" or "con­ditioning" process, was conducted through the medium of a series of lectures on the imperfections of the governments under which the prisoners lived before capture. Th.e United States Government and its economic and political systems constituted the main target for all lectures. During this phase, the United States was accused of instigating the war in Korea.
                                                                                    Implementation Phase. This phase of indoctrination was devoted to selling communism as a way of life to be preferred over the democratic system. The Communists used an old technique during this phase–comparing one with the other, pointing up the favorable aspects of com­munism and emphasizing the so-called "defects" of democ­racy. The enemy pictured the Communist state as a state in which every man, woman, and child lives a life of happi­ness, free of poverty and class discrimination.
                                                                                    METHODS OF CONTROL The Communists used the carrot-and-stick method of controlling POW's. When the carrot failed, they relied on three sticks: repetition, harassment, and humiliation. Repetition. This technique was used against all prisoners at one time or another during their captivity. Some pris­oners, yielding to pressure, memorized certain material and were questioned and examined on it for days, weeks, and months. They were asked to answer the same questions over and over again. They were required to read and re­
                                                                                    55
                                                                                    read Communist propaganda over and over again. By
                                                                                    repetition the enemy caused some prisoners with relatively
                                                                                    poor formal education to memorize heavy works on com­
                                                                                    munism and economics. Some of these prisoners memorized
                                                                                    entire sections pf books by Stalin and Lenin. .As a result of this repetition technique, some prisoners who had not advanced beyond the sixth grade could recite long essays on communism and its economic and political theories.
                                                                                    Harassment. This technique, like repetition, was used against a great number of prisoners during their captivity. Harassment was employed on a precise schedule that did not vary from day to day, week to week, or month to month. Its purpose was to create a state of anxiety in the prisoners -to keep them tense and in a state of constant uncer­tainty. It was also contrived to make the prisoners believe that harassment would end eventually, and that they could then live as normally as possible in prison. Harassment was usually based on trumped-up charges against prisoners. These charges could be anything from a very minor infrac­tion of the rules to a major offense, such as striking an enemy officer. However, it worked best on, and was designed for, prisoners who committed minor offenses in connection with the indoctrination program.
                                                                                    Humiliation. This technique was designed to be used against prisoners who demonstrated a great deal of per­sonal pride. Its objective was to break down a prisoner's personal pride by making him look ridiculous in the eyes of the other prisoners-to provoke shame and embarrassment in him. To assure its effectiveness, it was almost always used by the enemy in the presence of other prisoners.
                                                                                    GENERAL RESULTS
                                                                                    The results of Communist indoctrination in North Korea by the Chinese must be appraised in the light of the enemy's objectives. .As mentioned earlier, the Communists in North Korea did not attempt to convert every United Nations prisoner. They wanted to indoctrinate a few selected prisoners whom they could trust to accept com­munism as a Yay of life. These could subsequently develop
                                                                                    ,,·56
                                                                                    into Communist revolutionists. Primarily. the Communists in North Korea desired to destroy, or at least reduce, the hostility felt by the prisoners toward the Communist cause. They attempted to plant seeds of doubt that would grow and produce an attitude less opposed to communism.
                                                                                    In the light of those objectives, it is reasonable to assume that the Communist program of indoctrination in Korth Korea was successful to some degree. Official find­ings revealed that a small, select group of United Nations prisoners of war in North Korea was indoctrinated by the enemy in the theory and practice of communism. They also revealed that an undetermined number of other United Kations prisoners of war did not accept communism as such, but adopted an attitude of "seeing both sides" of commu­nism, observing some "good" points here and there. These sources further showed that the indoctrination weakened the old beliefs of some prisoners, confused other prisoners, and frustrated still others. 'With the exception of the allegedly indoctrinated prisoners, the others who saw merit in some aspects of communism failed to visualize com­munism as a threat to their democratic governments or the political institutions in their countries.
                                                                                    SUMMARY
                                                                                    The political indoctrination program had two major objectives:
                                                                                    &bull
                                                                                    The first was to indoctrinate a small, select group of prisoners in the theory ancI practice of communism, not as it appears through Communist propaganda but as it actually exists-an international conspiracy.

                                                                                    &bull
                                                                                    The second objective was to weaken the loyalty of the prisoners to their countries by undermining their political, religious, and moral convictions and thereby so confusing them that when they returned to their native countries they would be less opposed to communism.

                                                                                    Some American POW's did not know what the Communist program was all about. Some were confused by it. Self­
                                                                                    57
                                                                                    seekers accepted it as an easy out. A few may have be­lieved the business. They signed peace petitions and peddled Communist literature. It was not an inspiring spectacle. It set loyal groups against cooperative groups and broke up camp organization and discipline. It made fools of some men. and tools of others. And it provided the enemy with stooges for propaganda shows.
                                                                                    Fortunately, that was not the whole story. The over­whelming majority of United Nations prisoners of war rejected communism as a system of government and as a way of life. Generally, the Americans returned to their country wiser in the ways of communism and stronger in theIr faith in the United States of America.
                                                                                    58
                                                                                    Chapter 7
                                                                                    PROPAGANDA

                                                                                    P
                                                                                    ropaganda is tl1e H'ry lifeblood of communism. It
                                                                                    keeps tl1e Communist world conspiracy alive. 'Yitl1out
                                                                                    propaganda, communism could never have grown an(l
                                                                                    spread as it has. Througl1 propaganda, tl1e Communi",t
                                                                                    leaders sound the keynote of tl1e current "party line" to be
                                                                                    followed and parroted by tl1eir underlings. The terms
                                                                                    "'Yall Street warmongers," "Yankee imperialism," and
                                                                                    "decadent democracies" are but a few that were conceived
                                                                                    by Communist l)rOva.

                                                                                    andists. The "big-lie" technique, em­
                                                                                    ployed in the germ-varfare accusations leveled against the
                                                                                    "['nited States, exemvlifies tYllical Communist propaganda
                                                                                    in action.
                                                                                    It should have been expected, therefore, that the Com­munists vou](l try to use e.x. prisoners in Korea for provaganda purposes. In the prisoner-of-war camps, provag'anda was the backbone of the enemy's indoctrina­tion program.
                                                                                    The tie-in with the worldwide Communist plot is shown by the fact that several Soviet vropaganda experts were attached to the Chinese Communist prison organization and actively supported the Chinese in all vhases of prisoner­of-war administration. The presence of these experts from the Soviet lnion ,,-as one of the reasons that group­handling in North Korea by the Chinese was so similar to Communist group-handling in Germany, Polaml, and the Soviet Union. One such eXl'ert was from the )foscow Aeademy of Propaganda, where eareer Communist propa­gan<lists are specially trained in the propaganda themes best suited for each of the geograllhical areas of the world or for each of the various racial groups.
                                                                                    In addition to the Soviets serving on the propaganda staff, an Australian newspaperman and longtime Communist an(l a British Communist correspondent served as advisers to the Communist propaganda chief. These two "'estern newspapermen were responsible for giving the propaganda
                                                                                    50)59GO-59

                                                                                    -5 59
                                                                                    n ""'est'ern sIn nt" nnd presl'nting it in a falllili:lr "'estern forlllat.
                                                                                    PROPAGANDA OBJECTIVES
                                                                                    The objel'tive of all CoIIInlllllist propng"lIl<1a in .'iorth Korea was the glorification of l'omlllunislll amI the degrada­tion of the Vnited States. It was tbe COlllnlOn ell'nH'nt of cOllllllunism present in all COllllllunist ac-tivities of the prison COIllIlW]H1.
                                                                                    TIle basil' theme of COlllmunist propag':l!Hla in 1'orth Korea wns penl'e, nnd tlwt general tIlellle nen

                                                                                    r challged because the "pence offl'nsive" J)y COllllJl11l1ists throughout the Y'orI<l hns ne'er ch:lIlg-e(1. The COllllllllllists were talkill,g peace back in 1!)80 and said tIlPn that tlH'

                                                                                    ' vould lull tIll' free world into a stnte of pP:H'e nnd thell strike dtIl a c1endwd fist. In lllore ]'('('('nt times. tIw Comlllllllists have llePIl trying actin'ly to achien' th:1t objectin'. In 1!)17. the COlllllll1lIists held a series of confer('I!('ps in :Josco' and m:t<]e plans for an international peal'e oj'fpnsive, A similar
                                                                                    60
                                                                                    conference was heW in 1949. As a result of these peace con­ferences, the Stockholm Peace Convention, the Chicago Peace Crusade, and the Helsinki Peace Conference followed. The latter conferences were heW to convince the world that communism was a peaeeful movement and that the Com­munists were the real d1amlJions of peace. At the same time, the Communists were accusing the Vestern powers of prelJaring for Vorld Var III. This strategy followed the plans made by the Communists at their various conferences for peace.
                                                                                    In 1Q:")O, the Comlllunists accelerated the peace offensive as. a result of the war in Korea. PrOIJaganda generated in North Korea by the Chinese COIllmunists was designed for the prisoners, for the Communist and non-Communist worlds, and for the high eommand of the world Communist con­spiraey. The manner in ,vhkh a typical "peace lJetition" was used hy the Communists in Xorth Korea serves as a good example of the far-reaching effects of this type of propaganda.
                                                                                    Communist lJropagandists prepared the basic material for peace petitions. The petitions then were forwarded to the prison camps for signatures. After each petition had been signed by several hundred prisoners, the Communist propa­gandists checked it amI made ,vhatever additions woulel more sper-iti<-ally support the overall Communist objectives. 'rhe peace petition was then sent to certain strategic coun­tries, s1(·h as the United Stntes, >

                                                                                    ngland, India, Japan, and all Communist countries. In those countries, certain Com­munist agencies receiyed them for further dissemination. l

                                                                                    or example, in the Unitecl States, the Daily 1Vorkcr, the Conm1l1lli,st Pnrty, nnd the Xationnl Peace Center receiYed the petitions and distributed them to the 'front organiza­tions," In addition to Communist agen(jes, one other organ­ization receiYed at lenst fiye copies of almost eyery petition signed in Xorth Koren by United Xations vrisoners. That agene.y was the Unitecl Xations. The reason for this is obyious.
                                                                                    Few, if any, United Xntions prisoners who signed peace petitions thougllt those documents woulcl find their way into
                                                                                    61
                                                                                    every Communist channel in the world and eventually reach the United Nations as an "indictment" of the United States. Too late they realized that they had helped the Communists with two propaganda objectives, which were (1) to portray Communists as lovers of peace and (2) to demonstrate to the world that comlllunism had won hundreds of United Nations prisoners over to its cause.
                                                                                    PROPAGANDA TARGETS
                                                                                    Certain special propaganda targets were designated by the Communists. These, as a rule, were the aspects of American life that the Communists believed they could attack on the basis of their imperfection. The Communists attacked these targ"ets by using false "confessions" made by prisoners, in which they leveled charg"es against the United States and against the American way of life. For example, some 11ris­oners volunteered to write long papers on American banking, relating it to war and profits. Other prisoners wrote on racial discrimination and religious intolerance, making it appear that these practices were usual and not exceptional in the United States. The Communists would take this material, distort it, and fashion it into propaganda against the United States.
                                                                                    The most ambitious and far-reaching propaganda effort was the extraction of utterly false germ-warfare charges, which were coordinated with the "peace offensive." The Communists obtained from some United Nations prisoners "confessions" in which the prisoners allegedly admitted that they personally had engaged in germ warfare against the Korean civilian population. Such "confessions" were not, in themselves, enough to support the Communist charges, so the Communists also used "confessions" from other pris­oners who said they believed that America used germ-war­fare weapons against the Korean people. The prisoners' voices were recorded, and the comments of those who heard and saw them were recorded.
                                                                                    By actual count, the Communists broadcast the germ-war­fare charges against the United States throughout Asia at least 415 times during one period of 17 days. They prepared
                                                                                    62
                                                                                    (lnd (]istributed the "eonfessions" in book form, eom]llete itll 1ƇlUtogral'hs of the "bombs" and the Unite(] "'ations prisoners who admitte(] using the "bombs," So deU'rmined ere the COlllmunists to distl'edit the United Stat('s that the eharges were oflieially ]lresented to the Unite<1 Xations Gen­eral Assembly by (]elegates "frolll the Soviet Union. Tbese ebarges "l!re so serions that the Cnited States Govermnent found it ]l(.'eessary to issue an official denial.
                                                                                    On a [ess('r seale, the COllllllnnists trie(] lllany other triC'ks. Tbey tried to pr()pag'lIj(li

                                                                                    e the fre(! world into belie'ing that tbt'y l"l're providing the Cnited Xations prisoners I'itll faeilities eOlllparable to those the prisoners had enjoyed be­fore their ('apture. The COlllllll111ists l)('lien

                                                                                    that notbing produ('es better "proof" tban a picture. So, in pnrsuit of their objeetin" t!lPY made lIUlllel'ons photographs of pris­
                                                                                    oners enjoying ba:–:k(lthall. f('Ullis, s'inulling, and cheC'l:er:-
                                                                                    in a nlUdern re(']'('al iona1 elllbilOllse. These )lllOtographs were
                                                                                    63
                                                                                    disseminated to the world under glowing captions, indicating that the prisoners in North Korea were well treated by the COmllllll1ists.
                                                                                    For months, prisoners did not receive any mail whatsoever because the Communists were withholding it. At the same time, the Communists did not permit the prisoners to write letters to the Cnited States. At the propaganda center, how­ever, the enemy made numerous "prop" photographs of prisoners sitting at tables in the clubhouse writing letters or reading alleged mail from their families in the United States. These "props," like the others, were given wide dissemination in the free world to create the false impres­sion that the Communist enemy in North Korea was permit­ting a free exchange of communications between the pris­oners and their families. Some such "prop" photographs even had captions "urging" the prisoners to write to their families.
                                                                                    "TOWARD TRUTH AND PEACE"
                                                                                    This publication was the official organ of the Communist prison command and was under the supervision of the propaganda section. Although it was staffed by United Na­tions prisoners, a Communist propagandist served as adviser and insured that the newspaper would not deviate from the accepted policies. The paper appeared to be a purely pris­oner activity, with prisoners contributing to it as editorial writers or as reporters of camp news. However, most of the articles were Communist-inspired, supporting the enemy and severely attacking the United States and the United Nations. The prisoners submitted an average of 600 articles for each iSHue, of which approximately one dozen were published. The ones that were not published in the paper were pub­lished in a wall newspaper-a sheet plRced on all company and unit bulletin boards at all camps. "Toward Truth and Peace" was published at United States-British Prisoner of 'Val' Camp Number 5 and was circulated to all other camps.
                                                                                    A WORD TO THE WISE
                                                                                    Of the various aspects and techniques of communism, propaganda is one vital element that the American fighting
                                                                                    64
                                                                                    lllan shou!<l know, lllH]erstand, and be able to evaluate in the light of COlllmunist. objc'etives. The lUere reeognit:ion of
                                                                                    CHlllllunist IH'()paganda is a defense against COllllll1ulist in­
                                                                                    doctrination, beeause in(]oetriuation is nothing more than an organized distortion of faets aud fabric-ation of falsehoods disseminate(] through the medium of propaganda.
                                                                                    It. SllOU!<l be reiterated, too, that the Amerlean fighting lnan should yiew (omnl11uist propaganda in the light of COlUmunist. objettin's-loeal, uational, and worldwide. Com­munist propaganda nen'!" ehanges its basic liue of exaltiug communism and eriticizing eapitalism, especially eapitalisIU as it exist.s in the Unite(] States. All local COlUlUuuist prop­ngauda lias a din'tt or ind]n'('(: relntiouship with worl(IYitle COIlllunllist IIl'Ollag:lnda.
                                                                                    .i1 !.'JJ/Z SCCIIC at Dcalh Gallip (Calilp O'DollllclI) on LIIOIl, Aftcr tli c pllOlo[jraplicr SII«PPCr! Iii is picturc of Amcric«u prisollcrs Of /1"«1', sclcctcr! for thcir hcalthy appcarancc, the ricc ICC18 rCl/torcr!.
                                                                                    65
                                                                                    Chapter 8
                                                                                    PROBING FOR WEAK SPOTS
                                                                                    F
                                                                                    rom the moment a PO'V falls into their hands, the Com­munists begin probing him for weak spots. Sometimesthey cajole sometimes they threaten. In either case, theyare trying to find ways to make him do their bidding. Sometimes by direct threat, sometimes by subtle implica­tion, the prisoner is made to feel that unless he does theenemy's bidding, he will die.
                                                                                    In early stages of captivitythe threat is more likely to be direct: "Answer the question!-"-rite a self-criticism! -Sign this peace petition! 01'you will die!"
                                                                                    Captain Theodore Harris, an Ail' Force PO'V, experiencedthis in dramatic fashion during the Korean war.
                                                                                    One dayhe was forced to dig his own grave. Then he was told hewould be shot unless he signed a confession that he haddrolllled germ bombs on North Korea.
                                                                                    'Vhen he refused, hewas lliaced before a firing squad. Triggers were pUlled, butthe guns were emllty.
                                                                                    By his bravery, Captain I-Iarris won this game of Russianroulette. But this did not end his troubles. 'l'hroughout his14 months as a PO'V, the Communists kept probing-IJrob­
                                                                                    ing-probing.
                                                                                    TACTICS CAN CHANGE Sometimes a PO'V will respond to a threat of death with
                                                                                    hopeless resignation, rather than with the determinationthat moved Captain Harris. 'When this happens, the Com­munists can do a quick about-face. Dead, the PO,,' is of no
                                                                                    value to them. Their job now is to find other ways of makinghim do what they want him to do.
                                                                                    Kext comes a period of "reassurance" to bring the man outof his fatalistic, resigned mood.
                                                                                    "'Ve do not kill prisoners,"he is told "we have a lenient policy." Great "sympathy" isshown by the enemy for this unfortunate fellow, much "con­cern" for the things concerning him the most. But at the
                                                                                    66
                                                                                    first sigh of relief or flicker of IlOPO in the prisoner's eyes, there follows: "Of course, if yon are to qualify for our lenient treatment, you must demonstrate your Willingness to ('ooperate."
                                                                                    In some such nUlIlner it begins. Like a eat toying with a mouse, the captor manipulates the llrisoner's emotious, alter­nating between wistful hope for release and abject fear of death. Whether the threats are direct or implied, til( skilled interrogator does his best to hold the captive on the fine edge of indccision. He relies on the tug of war between the prisoner's hopes and fears to wear down his resistance. For
                                                                                    a prisoner, except for the opportunist, does not decide collaborate he submits gradually-"progressively," fro the Communist point of view.
                                                                                    DECENCY IS UNKNOWN
                                                                                    In probing for weak spots, the Communists make no co: cessions to decency. They know that food, medicine, ar mail are important items in prisoner-of-war camps, more f than in normal life. In North Korea, they used these thin! to break down prisoner resistance. Each had a place in tt enemy's program of indoctrination, and each was used by tl: enemy in a variety of ways, for a variety of reasons.
                                                                                    Food. Food was manipulated, not so much by tIle enem. as by prisoners whom the enemy had selected to distribut it. "Progressives" or collaborators in several camps weI' given the responsibility of issuing food. They manipulate, the food as a reward for cooperating with the enemy. AI though this practice was not the general rule, it nevertlleles was used to persuade certain prisoners.
                                                                                    Medicine. Medicine and medical treatment for a time wen offered to prisoners as special rewards. The fact that th. enemy did not allow the captive American medical officer! to attend the sick and wounded prisoners indicates tIm medical treatment was considered a controlled function re served for the enemy to use as he determined. Many Ameri can lives could have been saved if the enemy had actec humanely by dispensing available medicine and hy llermit ting American doctors to care for the sick and wounded prisoners.
                                                                                    Mail. Under the provisions of the Geneva Com"pntion, and under the established policy of the International Red Cross, the detaining power is required to deliver the mail to the prisoners after it has been censored. Such mail must be conveyed by the most rapid method at the disposal of the detaining power. Instead of following this established pro­cedure, the Communist enemy used the mail as a weapon and released it piecemeal in many instances as a reward for
                                                                                    "cooperation."
                                                                                    68
                                                                                    To break down the resistance of the prisoners, the Com­munists established a "system" of releasing mail. If they wanted to gain control of an individual prisoner, they would select and release only letters whose contents reflected worry and discontent, or conveyed bad news. Naturally, such let­ters would have an adverse effect on the prisoner. Knowing what the normal reaetion would be, the enemy approached the prisoner and, by hints and insinuations, further added to his worries and loneliness. The Communists tried to con­vinee the prisoner that they were the only friends he had. By withholcling favorable letters from the prisoner, they weakened his spiritual bond with his family. In some cases, the enemy IH'aetically divorced prisoners from their families and loved ones simply by manipulating the mails. By so doing, the enemy hoped to establish himself as the only prop on which the prisoners could lean for moral support.
                                                                                    At this stage, Communist pressure would be applied gently. The Communist captors would do their best to arouse the POlY's self-concern. "You must consider yourself," they would tell him. Then they would add that he owed nothing to the "fat capitalists" who were living in luxury while he suffered in prison. Under the pressures of the moment, the POlY frequently forgot that the very enemy who pretencled this sympathy was responsible for his suffering.
                                                                                    GIVE-UP-ITIS
                                                                                    Sometimes the Communists defeated their own purpose by pnshing a man too far. Thus they learned that the sarne factors ancl cirCitrnstances that had aided thern in their efforts to s

                                                                                    tbj'l <,gate ancl eamloit a lwisoner can also destroy the pdsonel"s will to live! And in many cases, death inter­vened to end a POW's troubles.
                                                                                    Unquestionably, the physical hardship of imprisonment accounts for most of the deaths lack of medical care for the wounded and siek, for example. But time and again when survivors were asked how some particular prisoner of their acquaintance had died, the answer was, "He just gave up."
                                                                                    69
                                                                                    Investigation of the nature of "give-up-itis" showed certain similarities in all cases. One of the most noticeable was what might be termed the "withdrawal." Each prisoner who died in such a manner had isolated himself from the others. Not only had he avoided conversation or association, but he had actually resisted-in the earlier stages when he had strength to resist-overtures of friendship or assistance from others. In the latter stages, he had lacked the strength to tell anyone to leave him alone, but his unresponsiveness had usually been enough to discourage any would-be Samar­itans.
                                                                                    Most often the victim huddled in a corner. He would cover his head with a blanket, if he had one, or some piece of his clothing-anything to shut himself off more com­pletely. He refused to eat, if anyone bothered to offer him food. He soiled himself rather than get up and go to the latrine. Usually, when he died his body would be drawn up into an approximation of the prenatal position. Each "victim" of "give-up-itis" died tttterly alone. Rarely, if ever, did any of the witnesses sincerely mourn his passing.
                                                                                    WHILE THERE'S LIFE … The Communists do not want to promote "give-up-itis" any more than a lobsterman wants to promote a disease that will kill his lobsters. Most of the men who resisted the more extensive pressures realized somewhere along the line that the enemy did not want them to die at least not while they were under special duress. Often, in fact, the Communists exerted considerable effort to keep a prisoner alive if he became dangerously ill. And they tried to prevent him from killing himself if he appeared suicidally inclined. This is perhaps explained in part by the simple fact that the Com­munists want martyrs tor their "cause," not against it.
                                                                                    This was shown in the case of Captain Theodore Harris, previously mentioned. Once, as a protest against the type of questions being asked him, he went on a hunger strike that lasted 12 or 13 days. His Chinese captors finally got him to end the strike by agreeing not to ask him any more ques­tions about germ warfare. They honored their agreement
                                                                                    70
                                                                                    for one month-nntil he lwll rei!:ninell some of his streni!:th. 'l'hen they bei!:an probing ni!:nin for weak spots.
                                                                                    'l'he Communists ha"l"e leilnwd through long experience that seH

                                                                                    re physical mistreatment is not the best way to obtain reliable information from a prisoner. 'l'hough an in­tt'lTog-lltor lllily be able to foree a lUan to talk by nsing torture. he lloes not know whether a nswers so obtainell are reliable or false. 'I'ht, answer may hnY(

                                                                                    been made up for the simple purpose of stopping the torture. Nor llo all meu break (lo nwl talk under tortnre. Sometimes uneonsdous­ness or siwek relieves them of all pnin: in other eases, so intense is the hatred awl delianee aroused that they oer­whelm all other sensa tions.
                                                                                    COllsider th(

                                                                                    case of it tough .ArlllY Sergeant natHed

                                                                                    ral­bert, who was a PO' in Korea. Questioned ai!:ain and ai!:ain, he stu('k to name, rank, serinl nUlllber, and dnte of birth. In tellini!: of his experienees, he said the Communists made
                                                                                    71
                                                                                    him kneel on sharp boards, they put him in a grave, the made him stand outside in the winner cold in his unckrwem They shot a pistol behind his head.
                                                                                    "If I got no other satisfaction out of the war," he saic "I do have the satisfaction of knowing that I didn't tel those anything and they couldn't make Ill< tell them."
                                                                                    In probing for weak spots, the Communists frequentl: meet "Sergeant Talberts." They provide food for thought
                                                                                    72
                                                                                    Chapter 9
                                                                                    THE POW CAN RESIST

                                                                                    j('al'llel1 that if they push a POIV too far too soon, their al1vautag-l' will be lost. A pris­oner's acceptance of his fate–ileath, torture, or whatevl'r­l1eprh'es them of tllPir main lever ag-ainst him: tear.
                                                                                    . till' mOlllent of his l1edsion to resist the enemy, eome -1111 t may, the prisoner will 1mn' overcome the main psycho­log'ii'al ohstnl'les to slll''intL '['his cOl/l/l/est of fear on his part relien'S his minl1 of frustration. Ill' retains hope, hut lIP is no long'er torn lll'tween hope nUil fear. His lllinl1 is now alert to prohlems of survival awl escape. No long-el' is lte ilreamy allll wishful heneefot'th, he will a vail himself of
                                                                                    11t the risk of death, A-meTiean prisollCrs of war celebrated
                                                                                    ttll: -1tt! of .TI/tl!, I.'Jf!, in a Japanese j)ri.

                                                                                    oll eamj) on, Jli>/(talw.o, Pit ilij!Jline T8tU liltS.
                                                                                    73
                                                                                    every opportunity to care for himself and help others do the same. He welcomes work details that might offer an oppor­tunity to pilfer from enemy supplies or scavenge for food in fields or woods. Rather than benHmnhis cireumstanee, he makes the best of it: thus he counters the eaptors' efforts to make him feel dependent on them.
                                                                                    THE POW MUST BE ALERT
                                                                                    Despite his apparent vietory, the POlY must remain alert. His Communist captors have not given up they probably are biding their time … just as tIley did with Captain Harris during his hunger strike. IVhen they think the time is ripe, they will renew their efforts.
                                                                                    If ever you become a PO,,' and find yourself at this point in your relations with your Commujlist captors, remember this: not only must you gct outside yourself you must stay outside yourself. For the man who is free in spirit, "stone walls do not a prison make,nor iron bars a eage."
                                                                                    Even if you are kept isolated for long periods of time, you can stay outside yourself if you think of yourself as a fighting man, still fighting for your country. Think of your fellow Americans who are counting on you to help preserve our way of life. Think of your fellow POlY'S whose welfare will often depend on your success in resisting subjugation. You are not alone!
                                                                                    TOGETHER WE STAND
                                                                                    Although long periods of solitary confinement are a possi­bility for which you must be prepared if you become a prisoner of war, the chances are much greater that you will spend most of your time in the company of other POlY'S. If so, you can draw strength from them, and they will draw strength from you. This was pro,ed again and again in Korea.
                                                                                    Especially insplrmg was the record of the Turkish pris­Ollers captured while fighting on the side of the U.N. forces. Although almost half of the Turkish POlY'S had been wounded before being captured, not one died in prison. In an article on prisoners of war that appeared in The New
                                                                                    74
                                                                                    rorkCl' o[ :2( Octobpr 1!)')/, Brig-ac1ipr Gpneral Willis A. Perry, CSA, 'as quoted as [ol!O'S :
                                                                                    At Dpath "allpy, one of the tpllll'Onu'y prison camps established by thp .'orth I(orpan COllllllunists in the early <1ays o[ thp war, wheJ'(

                                                                                    thp skk amI 'onIlde<1 pOllr('d in
                                                                                    for yeeks ill a ghastl.v stTf?Hlll, the T1nl'ks lost not :l sing'le
                                                                                    Illan ont o[ a hUIHlrec1 all(l ten, 'hile we lost I'onr huu<1red to eig-ht hIllHII'('([ out of tiftppn hUIHlred to eig-bteeu Imn­dred. 'hen a Turk g-ot skk, thp I'(. t nur,.pd him back to hpalth, If a ,.ick Turk 'a,. ordered to thp llO"l'ital, t'O wpll Turk,. weut along'. Thpy mini,.tpred to him hand all(l foot 'hile he 'as there, all(l when lIe 'as discharg-ed, they carripd him hack to the COIllPOIIIHL The Tnrk,. all ,.lwrpd thpi l' (·loth ing-and thpi I' food equa Ily. "'hen thp Com­lllllIists did the cooking-for thp caJllp, t'o Tnrks were dispatched to bring-ba('k 1༼<1 [01' thp g-ronp, amI it was <11'ided in equal portion,. ([m'll to the Inst JIlor,.el. Ƈཇerp
                                                                                    ,vas no hog'g'illg'

                                                                                    no rule of dog eat clog.
                                                                                    75
                                                                                    "'hile it is true that some Americans fell short of what was expected of them, this was not the general rule. MallY seryicemen exhibited pride in themselyes and their units. This was particularly vronounced in those who had belonged to the same unit for years. They stood by one another like that "hand of brothers" inspired by Nelson. If a man was sick, his fellow POlY'S took care of him. They washed his clothes, bathed him, and pulled him through. They exhibited true fraternal spirit, comradeship, military lll·ide. These men did not let each other down. Nor could the Korean Reds win much cooveration from them.
                                                                                    'Yherever resistance was successful, esprit de C01·pS aIHl disciVllne were imvortant factors. This was true of Ameri­cans as well as Turks. In their hatred of COllllllullism, how­ever, the Turks were eyen more outspoken than the Ameri­cans. HaYing llYed near the Communist world where they could see communism at close range, the 'l'urks loathe

                                                                                    l everything communistic. They broke camp rules and refused to obey eyen reasonable requests simply because those re­quests were made by Communists.
                                                                                    ANTAGONISM DOES NOT HELP
                                                                                    ,Yhile such behayior showed courage, it is generally true that an unduly antagonistic attitude 'Yill not help you if you become a POlY. The best conrse is to maintain a proper and forlllal military bearing. 'Yhile no course of aetion ean relieve all hardship, respectful refusal to gi-e information or to comply with other improper demands is less apt to incur further vhysical maltreatlll,,"nt than are those actions or mannerisms that in themselYes might insult or infuriate the captors.
                                                                                    Self-resvectlng demeanor and formal prnvriety in the face of all threats and abuses will in some measure hinder the enemy's efforts, perhrrps in time thwart them altogether. A3To
                                                                                    76
                                                                                    of the situation from the captor's point of view-will show why proper military bearing is the most desirable conduct in the face of whateYer the enemy might threaten or do.

                                                                                    SUICIDE IS NO WAY OUT
                                                                                    As a fighting man, you are prepared to give your life for your country. If you fear that under torture you may do or say something that would hurt your country, the thought of suicicle may haye occurred to you. If so, get rid of that thought NOW.
                                                                                    Neither yonI' country nor your Service will countenance suicide. Kor will your God! Suicide runs counter to the teachings of both Christianity and Judaism.
                                                                                    You are prepared to giye your life only when you are so oYerwhelmell that you c-an no longer resist. If you choose to die at tllC 7/(/nd8 at tlic cllcm!J rather than to yield in such a way that yon compromise yonI' country, you will have died a hero's death. Between death and dishonor, you will have chosen death.
                                                                                    You haye no such choice if you contemplate suicide to esc-ape torture. If you resist to the bitter end in a POW camp and if death comes at the hands of the enemy, you will haye liYed and died as a fighting man. But if you die by your myn hanel because you are afraid you will not be able to uphoW your honor and your country's honor when the test comes, yon actually will have surrendered-finally, and for all time.
                                                                                    Suicide is no way ont!

                                                                                    THE BREAKING POINT
                                                                                    Resistance by a fighting man can bring on his death, either in combat or as a PO'V. A wise man understands and accepts this. He knows also that resistance can lead to his surviyal. "'hat will be his own fate, he cannot say.
                                                                                    It has been said that "eyery man has his breaking point." If by this we mean that any man can be broken physically, driven to the point where he may collapse because of pain, hunger, or lack of sleep, the statement is true. However, it
                                                                                    77
                                                                                    is not true if we mean that a man of intc,gTity can reach a point at which-to escape further suffering-he will con­sciously and willingly do or say things to dishonor himself and his country.
                                                                                    Viewed thus, anyone who still holds that "eYery man has his breaking point" is necessarily including himself among the breakable. He also is demonstrating a fairly common human shortcoming: namely, he is trying to justify his own self-recognized shortcomings by telling himself that "eyery­body is like that." A man may very well not be sure how much physical or mental stress he can withstand until he is put to the test. He can be taken at his word if he announces in advance that he lias no values, principles, or convictions for which he is willing to endure more than minor incon­venience.
                                                                                    HE WHO DIES RESISTING
                                                                                    The man who dies resisting is not broken. Nor is one who is driven to mental distraction. Men were driven to distrac­tion by psychological pressures in the Communist prison camps of Korea. But this was a form of mental escape, much as unconsciousness is relief from physical suffering. ViThen the preSfHlres were removed, mental faculties soon were restored. The man who dies for something in which he believes does so willingly, and without regret unless the regret is such as that expressed by Nathan Hale-that he had "but one life to lose."
                                                                                    Our foes in the past have expressed admiration fot' U.S. fighting men who fought valiantly against them or held fast to their convictions at all costs. The Communists actually fear the man who proves himself willing to die rather than submit to their demands. His resistance creates for them something of a dilemma even though they are in a position to kill him if they wish, to do so would create a martyr against their "cause." This they wish to avoid. Further than that, such resistance proves that the Communists are not invincible, negating the Marxist premise that comnlU­nism is the "irresistible waye of the future."
                                                                                    78
                                                                                    So long: as tht'l'e l'('llUtillS rt llUlll "ho is vHling h) (lie for
                                                                                    his cOll'idious, it cauuot be said that "e'ery man has his brpakiu,:'-IƆiut:." Those who woul(l claim for themselves the title of U.S, fighUug Ulau, a.nd all olhers who staud reso­lnlel. -for luullan <1ig'nity ami freedom, must be persons of sw,h ('ouyictions ami faith, So 10llg as men lin

                                                                                    there will he those who, by one me:lllS or another, will strin> to force their ways 11iH>!1 all lll:lllldnd, Only so long as other lllell are villing to die for their principles, will they c011tin11e to know-or even deserve to know-the meaning of freelloJU!
                                                                                    79
                                                                                    Chapter 10
                                                                                    THE CODE IS YOUR ARMOR

                                                                                    E
                                                                                    yery war has its disturbing aftermath. 'l'here is al­ways another side to the Victory coin. If the victory is not clearly imprinted and the war has ended in what seems a stalemate, the coin becomes susjlect. In any event, there is usually a postwar inventory. If losses haye been heavy and objectives obscure, the coin may seem debased.
                                                                                    'l'he inventory after the "War of 1812 was unpleasant. There were some painful reactions after the Spanish-Amer­ican ,Val'.
                                                                                    In a great war, some battles are inevitably lost. lIlilitary leaders study these battles, determined to uncover' "mistakes, if any were made, so that errors in kind may be avoided in the future.
                                                                                    Correction of possible errors and the need for a unified l,lan for the future led the Dejlartment of Defense to ex­amine closely the prisoner-of-war situation in Korea. Accord­ingly, the Defense Advisory Committee on Prisoners of ,Yar was organized early in 1955 to study the problem.
                                                                                    Guidelines for the Committee were given by Honorable Charles E. ,Vilson, then Secretary of Defense. In a memo­randum to Mr. Carter L. Burgess, then Chairman of the Committee, he had this to say:
                                                                                    I am deeply concerned with the imllortance to our na­tional security of provifling Americans who sen"e tlleir country in battle with every means ,ve can devise to defeat the enemy's techniques. To assure tile success of our Armed Forces it is equally as essential to arm them with the best weajlons of the mind and body as it is to W'ovide them with the machines of war.
                                                                                    Our national military needs must be met. This requires that each member of the Armed Forces be thoroughly in­doctrinated with a simple, easily understood code to gov­ern his conduct while a jlrisoner of war. However, this
                                                                                    80
                                                                                    !IIilit:I!'Y nel'd 11ll1

                                                                                    t be Inet ill a lllllllPr cO!llpatible with thp prilleil'h'

                                                                                    and p!'eeepts l"ISie to onr fO!'!11 o[ gOH'rn­!IIent. En [oj'('ellIPll]-!IInst bp 1ll'l'Olllpiisheil 'ith justice and nnderstall<ling,
                                                                                    A SEARCHING STUDY Going to 'ork i!llllll'diatply, thp COIll!llitl:ep Illade a search­illg

                                                                                    tndy o[ thp 1Ɔ-probleills rHi

                                                                                    crihed in prpyions (·bapters. Delying' into statbties, the COllllllit(:ee facell t!H'se filets: A totlll of ct,t. '" Allle!'iean fighting mpn were recovered
                                                                                    frtnn ellPlllY pl'i


                                                                                    Conclusions

                                                                                    Finished Crossroads, Joint Task Force One concluded that the atomic bomb was a game-changer. But despite being the greatest military exercise yet in history, its results remained inconclusive. At least, for the involved forces.

                                                                                    In this way, the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force couldn’t grasp much from it regarding their role in the nuclear warfare future. At least immediately.

                                                                                    U.S. Navy

                                                                                    The U.S. Air Force repeatedly pointed out how only nine ships survived Crossroads. This was in order to fortify its claim that the U.S. Navy wouldn’t be of much help in the brand-new nuclear age.

                                                                                    A controversial photo. Admiral William H.P. Blandy and his wife cut an Operation Crossroads mushroom cloud cake during a celebration on November 5, 1946 to mark the disbanding of Joint Army-Navy Task Force Number One. (Wikimedia)

                                                                                    Therefore, in the following months after Crossroads, the U.S. Navy saw in the position of having to justify its military assets. While the U.S. Air Force spoke of the small number of ships surviving the explosions, the U.S. Navy spoke of how few sank. This, of course, overlooked the fact that most ships ended up deadly poisoned.

                                                                                    According to the U.S. Navy, its fleet was not as vulnerable to nuclear weapons as Crossroads presented it. They argued that the test fleets conditions were not fair and far from a proper, real-world scenario.

                                                                                    The target ships neither were able of defending themselves nor were arrayed on a real military formation. Instead, they were tightly close to each other for maximizing damage. If the target fleet had implemented all of these factors, it would have suffered less damage from the blast.

                                                                                    Besides, on Crossroads more modern ships proven much better in supporting nuclear blasts than the older ones. In this way, despite carrier Independence’s superstructure and deck took so much damage, its hull was not greatly affected. Not to mention that new ships could maneuver fairly more efficiently.

                                                                                    Blandy, for his part, understood that the U.S. Navy obtained tactical value from Crossroads. He learned that, in nuclear warfare, fleets had to move and anchor even more widely spaced one from the other. This lesson in particular, however, was far from justifying the enormous material and human cost of Crossroads.

                                                                                    Finally, by 1946 the U.S. Navy added three new technological agencies. The criticism towards the U.S. Navy only draught up the necessity of upgrading ship designs for facing nuclear explosions. Such a conclusion ignored the fact that the blast of a nuclear bomb was not as destructive as its radiation.

                                                                                    All things considered, if the U.S. Armed Forces learned something from Crossroads was how dangerous a nuclear fallout could be. In this sense, scientific authority Glenn Seaborg described Baker as the world’s first nuclear disaster.

                                                                                    In 1948, famous writer E. B. White said that the U.S. Navy wasn’t fond of this type of invisible threat, as it dishonored the ways of conventional warfare.

                                                                                    The “invisible” part of nuclear devices was a new and, more importantly, deadlier weapon. Especially, thanks to plutonium and its alpha particles.

                                                                                    Still, developing technologies for protecting U.S. Navy crews from radioactivity wasn’t off the table. New craft designs included hulls and equipment more resistant to radiation, as well as systems for washing it down.

                                                                                    These efforts came despite knowing that sailors couldn’t handle radiation completely. It was rather the U.S. Navy‘s way of acknowledging that its sailors had to prepare themselves to face such a scenario.

                                                                                    Still, this dreadful message was exclusively for the military. For civilians, the U.S. Government came up with a civil defense program for nuclear protection that belittled the gravity of a nuclear war.

                                                                                    U.S. Air Force

                                                                                    After Crossroads, the U.S. Air Force was not left behind either. While the U.S. Navy had to prove that carriers could launch nuclear weapons, the B-29 was already up and running.

                                                                                    Despite missing its target during Able, the B-29 was the main if not the only vehicle capable of delivering nuclear bombs. The prevailing opinion was that only newer aircraft still under development could match or surpassed it. This granted the U.S. Air Force a leading role for the time being on the U.S. Nuclear Arsenal.

                                                                                    In this sense, the U.S. Air Force got a thing or two from Crossroads. The operation was its door to the nuclear program, even more than Trinity, Hiroshima and Nagasaki detonations.

                                                                                    These bombings occurred during the high-paced nature of war. Crossroads, on the other hand, took place during peacetime. As such, it was mostly a training experience on nuclear weaponry and technology for the U.S. Air Force and its personnel.

                                                                                    Before the operation, it had but a few nuclear expert officers. Nonetheless, the selection process for the bombing crew resulted in more nuclear-skilled pilots. Moreover, it allowed the U.S. Air Force to familiarize and establish ties with Los Alamos’ nuclear experts.

                                                                                    Los Alamos Laboratory

                                                                                    Regarding Los Alamos, we saw earlier how Crossroads massively halted its nuclear projects. Its participation, nonetheless, paid off as invaluable experience on nuclear operations.

                                                                                    It’s important to notice that Crossroads took place in a time of reconstruction for Los Alamos. After the end of the war left the laboratory without a clear objective.

                                                                                    In this way, Crossroads was a large-scale operation handy for testings Los Alamos’ ability under the pressure of public opinion. Moreover, the recent farewell of many senior members made Crossroads a perfect scenario for newer technicians to step up.

                                                                                    Among the things Los Alamos learned from Crossroads was that nuclear weapons worked underwater as intended. Technicians were also able to observe the effects of nuclear weapons and their radiation on water. Furthermore, reports of the explosions linked nuclear fallouts with the presence of materials such as dust.

                                                                                    And for the rest of the World it was a clear taste of the things to come.


                                                                                    Watch the video: IRAQ WAR - Basra, British Troops 3 PARA (June 2022).


Comments:

  1. Mareo

    I fully share your opinion. There is something in this and an excellent idea, I agree with you.

  2. Maarouf

    Following the law of a sandwich, we can conclude that if a sandwich is smeared on both sides, it will hang in the air. How old is your tomboy? Sixteen? Yes, it's too late to have an abortion ... If the enemy doesn't give up, they restart him! Do not throw gobies in urinals, we don’t piss in your ashtrays to trample KLAVA - this is not for you to indulge with JOYSTICK ... Schaub, you lived as you are poor! Life is so short! Be patient a little! The wind was blowing so strong that cigarettes were turned out with their teeth ...

  3. Porfiro

    What a beautiful phrase

  4. Ottah

    Babies the highest grade !!!

  5. Ryker

    I can recommend stopping by the website which has many articles on this matter.

  6. Saud

    I apologize, but in my opinion you admit the mistake. I can prove it. Write to me in PM, we will discuss.



Write a message