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The first Clyde, a side wheel steamer, was captured as Neptune 14 June 1863 by USS Lackawanna and sent to Key West for condemnation. Sent to New York to be surveyed and appraised, she was purchased by the Navy Department and placed in commission 29 July 1863, Acting Master A. A. Owens in command.
Departing New York 30 July 1863, the steamer arrived at Washington, D.C., 3 August. Her name was changed to Clyde 11 August 1863. Clyde sailed from Washington 6 September 1863 and arrived at Key West 13 September for duty with the East Gulf Blockading Squadron. She patrolled the coastal and inland waters of western Florida and among the Florida Keys until the end of the war. She captured the schooner Amaranth 27 September 1963, and participated in two boat expeditions up the Shawnee and Waccasassa rivers, capturing nearly 200 bales of cotton.
Arriving at Philadelphia Navy Yard 10 August 1865, Clyde was decommissioned 17 August 1865, taken to New York and sold 25 October 1866.
In 1917, the United States Shipping Board provided a government loan to the Pacific Coast Shipbuilding Company to build a company town.  The board commissioned Bernard Maybeck to be supervising architect for laying out the new town. He designed the hotel and around 200 of the initial homes built in the town. George Applegarth was hired as acting architect. In this position, he drew many of the architectural plans for the town. 
According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.1 square miles (0.26 square kilometres), all of it land.
The 2010 United States Census  reported that Clyde had a population of 678. The population density was 5,054.5 people per square mile (1,951.6/km 2 ). The racial makeup of Clyde was 530 (78.2%) White, 11 (1.6%) African American, four (0.6%) Native American, 58 (8.6%) Asian, three (0.4%) Pacific Islander, 25 (3.7%) from other races, and 47 (6.9%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 99 persons (14.6%).
Police kill famous outlaws Bonnie and Clyde
On May 23, 1934, notorious criminals Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow are shot to death by Texas and Louisiana state police while driving a stolen car near Sailes, Louisiana.
Bonnie Parker met the charismatic Clyde Barrow in Texas when she was 19 years old and her husband (she married when she was 16) was serving time in jail for murder. Shortly after they met, Barrow was imprisoned for robbery. Parker visited him every day, and smuggled a gun into prison to help him escape, but he was soon caught in Ohio and sent back to jail. When Barrow was paroled in 1932, he immediately hooked up with Parker, and the couple began a life of crime together.
After they stole a car and committed several robberies, Parker was caught by police and sent to jail for two months. Released in mid-1932, she rejoined Barrow. Over the next two years, the couple teamed with various accomplices to rob a string of banks and stores across five states—Texas, Oklahoma, Missouri, New Mexico and Louisiana. To law enforcement agents, the Barrow Gang—including Barrow’s childhood friend, Raymond Hamilton, W.D. Jones, Henry Methvin, Barrow’s brother Buck and his wife Blanche, among others—were cold-blooded criminals who didn’t hesitate to kill anyone who got in their way, especially police or sheriff’s deputies. Among the public, however, Parker and Barrow’s reputation as dangerous outlaws was mixed with a romantic view of the couple as “Robin Hood”-like folk heroes.
Their fame was increased by the fact that Bonnie was a woman𠅊n unlikely criminal𠅊nd by the fact that the couple posed for playful photographs together, which were later found by police and released to the media. Police almost captured the famous duo twice in the spring of 1933, with surprise raids on their hideouts in Joplin and Platte City, Missouri. Buck Barrow was killed in the second raid, and Blanche was arrested, but Bonnie and Clyde escaped once again. In January 1934, they attacked the Eastham Prison Farm in Texas to help Hamilton break out of jail, shooting several guards with machine guns and killing one.
This research guide is a study of the famous outlaw duo Bonnie and Clyde and their existence in American memory. I have divided the guide into two parts. Part one explores Bonnie and Clyde in history and in their own time, the time of the Great Depression. In this section I have included a number of primary sources, many of them from digitized archives. The Dallas Municipal Archives and FBI Vault each provide a trove of primary sources related to the exploits of Bonnie and Clyde. Important among these sources are reports detailing the crimes and accomplices of the Barrow gang, as they provide a clear picture of what happened during Bonnie and Clyde’s crime spree from 1932 to 1934. Some of these sources capture the public’s response to Bonnie and Clyde in the Depression Era, such as the photographs of Bonnie and Clyde’s funerals and the report by the New York Times on their ambush. Photo evidence and personal correspondences, furthermore, offer insight into who Bonnie and Clyde were as people. The accounts of Barrow gang members W.D. Jones and Blanch Caldwell Barrow also help shape the story of what happened in the 1930s and who Bonnie and Clyde were. The secondary sources provided in part one help to put the story of Bonnie and Clyde in the historical context of the Depression Era. They also help debunk some of the mythologized aspects of Bonnie and Clyde’s story that have cropped up throughout the time since their deaths.
Part two of the research guide explores Bonnie and Clyde’s existence in American memory and consists of three sections. The first section covers Bonnie and Clyde’s depiction in film. Arthur Penn’s famous 1967 film Bonnie and Clyde revivified the story of Bonnie and Clyde through a glamorous and romantic depiction of the outlaw couple, but not without controversy. Included along with the movie are a number of reviews of the film and articles discussing its relationship to history and to the memory of Bonnie and Clyde. Another film included in this section is The Bonnie Parker Story, a film that focuses on the figure of Bonnie Parker. The second part of this section covers Bonnie and Clyde’s existence in music. Among popular depictions of the pair in music is a modern day Broadway musical as well as a concert tour by Beyoncé and Jay-Z inspired by the story of Bonnie and Clyde. The third and final section of part two is an examination of Bonnie and Clyde in modern local memory. For this exploration, I have included two news articles describing the monuments, museums, and festivals recalling the story of Bonnie and Clyde.
Part One: In History
Left: Bonnie Parker playfully posing with a pistol and smoking a cigar, Right: Clyde Barrow poses with a gun in front of a car (Source: FBI website)
1.) PRIMARY SOURCES-
1.) Clyde Barrow Gang Collection, 1930-1939. Dallas Municipal Archives. The Portal to Texas History. www.texashistory.unt.edu.
This source is a historical archive of a wealth of digitized artifacts surrounding the history of Bonnie and Clyde and the Barrow gang. It includes over 75 artifacts, ranging from telegrams, letters, news clippings, wanted posters, court documents, fingerprints, police photographs, and more. These artifacts give much information about the crimes themselves and how the police pursued the Barrow Gang. It even includes testimony of members of the Barrow Gang, members who had an inside look into the experience of Bonnie and Clyde.
(click images to enlarge and read)
Clyde Champion Barrow Wanted Poster, 1932 – Sherman, Texas. Poster. Clyde Barrow Gang Collection, 1930-1939. Dallas Municipal Archives. University of North Texas Libraries, Dallas, TX.
Wanted posters such as these are important sources in understanding what crimes Bonnie and Clyde were responsible for committing. This wanted poster charges Clyde with the murder of Howard Hall, a grocery store clerk, on October 11th, 1932. It also alleges that Barrow was wanted for the various robberies and the murder of multiple policeman throughout the Texas-Oklahoma area.
Clyde Champion Barrow Mug Shot – Dallas 6048. Image. Clyde Barrow Gang Collection, 1930-1939. Dallas Municipal Archives. University of North Texas Libraries, Dallas, TX.
This source, like the previous, is important in identifying what crimes the Barrow gang was held responsible for committing. This wanted poster includes Clyde Barrow’s mugshot and a description claiming he is wanted for a robbery at a gas station.
Dallas (Tex.) Police Dept. “Clyde Champion Barrow Wanted Report, 05/12/1932 – Dallas, Texas Police Department,” May 12, 1932. Clyde Barrow Gang Collection, 1930-1939. Dallas Municipal Archives. University of North Texas Libraries, Dallas, TX.
This source is an example of a police report of a crime committed by Clyde Barrow. The report indicates Barrow robbed a an oil station in Luftkin, TX.
Dallas (Tex.) Police Dept. Letter, “Clyde Champion Barrow Wanted Report, 08/01/1932 – Dallas, Texas Police Department,” August 1, 1932. Clyde Barrow Gang Collection, 1930-1939. Dallas Municipal Archives. University of North Texas Libraries, Dallas, TX.
In this police report, Clyde Barrow is accused of having robbed a meat packing house. This police report also is among the first to include Raymond Hamilton as one of Clyde Barrow’s accomplices. Hamilton would go on to commit several more crimes with Clyde as a member of the Barrow gang, including the famous Grapevine murder.
Sibley, W.R. Report, “Clyde Champion Barrow Wanted Report, 10/13/1932 – Abilene, Texas,” October 13, 1932. Clyde Barrow Gang Collection, 1930-1939. Dallas Municipal Archives. University of North Texas Libraries, Dallas, TX.
This wanted report charges Barrow with having staged a robbery at a Piggly Wiggly grocery store in Waco, TX. It gives a description of other crimes for which Barrow is wanted, including other robberies, murder, and assault. It lists Raymond Hamilton as an accomplice and also is one of the first to mention Bonnie Parker as an accomplice.
Dallas (Tex.) Police Dept. Report, “Clyde Champion Barrow Wanted Report, 05/08/1933 – Dallas, Texas Police Department,” May 8, 1933. Clyde Barrow Gang Collection, 1930-1939. Dallas Municipal Archives. University of North Texas Libraries, Dallas, TX.
This wanted report implicates Clyde Barrow in the attempted robbery of a bank in Luserne, IN. A brief description of the incident describes Barrow as being accompanied by two women. It furthermore claims one of the women was shot in the attempted robbery.
“Barrow Gang” Wanted Poster, 1933 – Van Buren, Arkansas. Poster. 1933. Clyde Barrow Gang Collection, 1930-1939. Dallas Municipal Archives. University of North Texas Libraries, Dallas, TX.
This is a wanted poster for the the Barrow gang, whose members include Bonnie Parker (left photo), Clyde Barrow (middle photo, left), Blanch Barrow (right photo, left), “Melvin” (Buck) Barrow (right photo, right), and an unidentified young man, likely W.D. Jones (middle photo, right). The poster describes the Barrow brothers as being wanted for murder, attempted car robbery, and rape. This is one of the few instances wherein the Barrow gang was associated with the charge of rape. Another important aspect of the poster is the description of Bonnie Parker: she is said to be badly burned and to have a tattoo on her thigh, several inches above the knee. For a woman to have a tattoo in this era was uncommon and somewhat scandalous. The burn the poster describes was sustained in a car accident in 1933. This burn left Bonnie partially crippled she could only hop on one leg and was often carried by Clyde after the accident according to Jeff Guinn and W.D. Jones.
Dallas (Tex.) Police Dept. Memorandum, “Dallas, Texas Sheriff’s Department Complaint of the Eastham Prison Break-out,” January 15, 1934. Clyde Barrow Gang Collection, 1930-1939. Dallas Municipal Archives. University of North Texas Libraries, Dallas, TX.
This report describes the famous Eastham Farm Prison break-out staged by the Barrow gang. According to the report, Bonnie and Clyde halted a truck transferring prisoners, “shot three guards and rescued Raymond Hamilton.” Several other prisoners also escaped in the break-out in addition to Hamilton.
Barrow, Clyde. Telegram, “Clyde Barrow Telegram to Dallas, Texas District Attorney,” n.d. Clyde Barrow Gang Collection, 1930-1939. Dallas Municipal Archives. University of North Texas Libraries, Dallas, TX.
This is a telegram from Clyde Barrow addressed to District Attorney King. In it, Clyde accuses Raymond Hamilton of committing the infamous Grapevine murders, which was the murder of two police officers in Grapevine, TX. The murders negatively affected public sentiment concerning Bonnie and Clyde and revivified efforts to capture Bonnie and Clyde. Clyde claims he and Bonnie were not even in Texas at the time of the murders.
Parker, Bonnie. Poem, “The Trail’s End,” n.d. Clyde Barrow Gang Collection, 1930-1939. Dallas Municipal Archives. University of North Texas Libraries, Dallas, TX.
This is a poem written by Bonnie Parker, recovered at the Joplin, MO, hideout. The poem is one of the contributing factors to Bonnie and Clyde’s popularity among the public in their day. The poem describes “awful hard times,” “weariness,” and the sufferings of the people in the Depression Era south. In the poem, Parker also expresses Bonnie and Clyde’s resolution to never “give up until they died,” citing death as “the wages of sin.” The poem has reemerged many times in pop culture: in Arthur Penn’s Bonnie and Clyde and in multiple songs, including Merle Haggard’s “The Legend of Bonnie and Clyde.”
Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker’s Bullet Hole-Ridden V8 Ford. Photograph. Clyde Barrow Gang Collection, 1930-1939. Dallas Municipal Archives. University of North Texas Libraries, Dallas, TX.
This is an image of Bonnie and Clyde’s famous V-8 Ford, riddled with bullets. Bonnie and Clyde were killed when police ambushed their vehicle in Bienville Parish, LA, on May 23rd, 1934. Six officers shot numerous rounds into their car, possibly exceeding a hundred bullets total.
Bonnie Parker’s Funeral – Dallas, TX. Photograph. 1934. Clyde Barrow Gang Collection, 1930-1939. Dallas Municipal Archives. University of North Texas Libraries, Dallas, TX.
This image shows Bonnie Parker’s funeral. Multiple, possibly thousands of people can be seen attending her funeral in this photograph. The immense size of the gathering says much about the public’s fascination with Bonnie and Clyde in the Depression Era.
2.) “Bonnie and Clyde in Oklahoma.” Oklahoma Department of Libraries Online. Last modified 2014. Accessed December 1, 2014. http://www.odl.state.ok.us/oar/resources/bonnieclyde/low.htm.
This is a presentation created by the Oklahoma Department of Libraries. It provides a number of primary sources surrounding a murder committed by members of the Barrow gang in Oklahoma on April 6th, 1934, just after the Grapevine murders. It provides photographs of the crime scene and transcripts from the trial of Henry Methvin, one of the Eastham Farm prison escapees (Methvin v. Oklahoma State, 105 1936 OK CR [1st Cir. 1936]). One of the important documents from the trial is the examination of the defendant Henry Methvin, who describes in detail the what occurred, offering an interesting, albeit assuredly biased as Methvin was on trial for murder, eyewitness account of one of the Barrow gang’s murders.
3.) “Barrow and Woman Are Slain by Police in Louisiana Trap.” New York Times (New York, NY), May 23, 1934.
This is an article by the New York Times reporting on the ambush of Bonnie and Clyde. The article describes the event and Bonnie and Clyde, saying, “Clyde Barrow, notorious Texas ‘bad man’ and murderer, and his cigar-smoking, quick-shooting woman accomplice, Bonnie Parker, were ambushed and shot to death today in an encounter with Texas Rangers and Sheriff’s deputies.” The author characterizes Frank Hamer, the famous Texas Ranger who is credited with having tracked down Bonnie and Clyde, as a hero figure who caught two villains. The description of the ambush in this article is a point of interest in that it conflicts with other accounts of the ambush, claiming that Clyde attempted to run down the officers with his car.
4.) U.S. Department of Justice. “FBI Records: The Vault, Bonnie and Clyde.” The Federal Bureau of Investigation. Last modified May 2009. Accessed December 1, 2014. http://vault.fbi.gov/Bonnie%20and%20Clyde.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. Bonnie and Clyde Horsing Around With a Gun. Photograph. Famous Cases and Criminals. FBI Records: The Vault.
This image was among the many recovered at the Joplin, MO, hideout. It shows Bonnie playfully pointing a gun at Clyde. This photograph has since emerged multiple times in pop culture and is one of the more famous images of the duo.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. Identification Order No. 1227, Bonnie and Clyde. Photograph. December 2006. FBI Records: The Vault.
This is a wanted poster for Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow produced by the Department of Justice. Because Bonnie and Clyde’s crimes criss-crossed state borders, the FBI became involved in the investigation of their crimes. Among Bonnie’s relatives, the poster lists her husband Roy Thorton, to whom she was still married when she met Clyde Barrow. This poster also gives a description of the wounds on Bonnie’s legs and describes a walking impairment.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. Bonnie and Clyde Part 03 of 07, pg. 49. Photograph. FBI Records: The Vault.
This photograph shows the crowd that gathered around Bonnie and Clyde’s car after the ambush in Louisiana. Shortly after the ambush occurred, a large group of spectators came to the scene of their deaths as police were attempting to collect evidence. According to historical sources, several members of the crowd began taking souvenirs from the car, like shards of glass and bullet shell casings, and from the bodies of Bonnie and Clyde themselves, including locks of Bonnie’s hair, pieces of their clothing, and (according to Milner) one individual even attempted to take one of Clyde’s ears. The aftermath of the ambush and the immense crowd here again indicate the public fascination with Bonnie and Clyde.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. Bonnie and Clyde Part 03 of 07, pg. 5. Photograph. FBI Records: The Vault.
This is a photograph taken from Clyde’s funeral. His funeral, like Bonnie’s, drew a large crowd numbering into the thousands. In The True Story of Bonnie and Clyde written by Bonnie’s mother and Clyde’s sister, the authors describe how at the funeral popcorn and candy stands were erected at the funeral due to the large crowd it attracted.
5.) Barrow, Blanche Caldwell. My Life With Bonnie and Clyde, edited by John Neal Phillips. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004.
This is a memoir written by Blanche Barrow, a member of the Barrow gang and wife of Buck Barrow. Barrow wrote the book as she served time from 1933-1939 in the Missouri State Penitentiary. The memoir was recovered after her death by a friend and published into a book by Bonnie and Clyde history expert John Neal Phillips, a Dallas professor and author of Running With Bonnie and Clyde: The Ten Fast Years of Ralph Fults. Of the memoir, Phillips said, “despite the author’s prejudicial viewpoint toward her husband, these passages paint a very intriguing overall picture of the seductiveness of crime and the psychology of the fugitive mentality, this overwhelming sense of ‘us against them’.”
6.) Jones, W.D. “Riding With Bonnie and Clyde.” Playboy Magazine, November 1968.
In this source, Barrow gang member W.D. Jones tells the tale of his experience with Bonnie and Clyde. He wrote the piece shortly after the release of Arthur Penn’s Bonnie and Clyde and attempts to debunk some of the sensationalization of the lives of Bonnie and Clyde perpetuated by the movie and other sources. Jones describes Clyde as polite and clever and asserts that he never wanted to kill except when he felt he must. He addresses the claims (put forth by John Toland in The Dillinger Days) that Clyde was a homosexual saying, “I was with him and Bonnie. I know. It just ain’t true.” He also addresses the media coverage of the gang’s crimes in the 1930s and the portrayal of their group as bank robbers, asserting, “Some of the tales about us robbing banks all the time ain’t true, either. The time I was with Clyde and Bonnie, we never made a bank job. He liked grocery stores, filling stations and places there was a payroll. Why should we rob a bank? There was never much money in the banks back in them days in the Southwest. But that’s not the way the papers put it.” He additionally alleges that Bonnie never smoked cigars, as she is often said to have done, or even fired a gun. While his version of events may be biased in his desire not to implicate himself in any of the murders, for example, his story is a valuable eye witness account of the Barrow gang’s exploits.
2.) SECONDARY SOURCES-
1.) Guinn, Jeff. Go Down Together: The True Untold Story of Bonnie and Clyde. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2009.
This book serves as one of the best Bonnie and Clyde resources to date. Based primarily on primary source research, the book analyzes the story of Bonnie and Clyde not just in the years of their crime spree from 1932-1934, but from their adolescence growing up in the slums of West Dallas, a place Guinn describes as an absolute “hellhole.” The book does a particularly good job of setting the story of Bonnie and Clyde in the historical context of the Depression Era 1930s, explaining possible reasons for why the public became so fascinated with the couple. Here, “the legend still stands under its own power. Bonnie and Clyde’s death dance is more terrifying told in real time here than it was in the [Arthur Penn] film’s famous special effects scene,” says reviewer Jackie Loohauis-Bennett. In addition to this book, I have included Loohauis-Bennett’s brief review of the book and a citation and link to an audio file of Jeff Guinn’s lecture on his book at the Kansas City Library in 2009 which highlights some of the essential elements of the book.
Loohauis-Bennett, Jackie. “Well-Researched Book Targets Bonnie and Clyde Myth.” McClatchy – Tribune Business News, Mar 14, 2009. http://search.proquest.com/docview/464866375?accountid=9676.
Guinn, Jeff. “Jeff Guinn: Go Down Together.” Lecture, Kansas City Public Library, Plaza Branch, Kansas City, MO. March 26, 2009. Audio file. Internet Archive. 2011. Accessed December 1, 2014. https://archive.org/details/JeffGuinnGoDownTogether.
2.) Milner, E.R.. The Lives and Times of Bonnie and Clyde. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2003.
This book, like Guinn’s Go Down Together, is an even-handed portrayal of the lives of Bonnie and Clyde. The book, unlike many others, spends time discussing Bonnie and Clyde as individuals, rather than in the context of their crimes or lives together, giving a full view of who these historical figures were as people. Milner, a history professor at Tarrant College, focuses primarily on primary source research and includes a number of useful sources to demystify the legendary qualities of the story of Bonnie and Clyde, among these, letters, diaries, newspaper articles, and more.
3.) Toland, John. The Dillinger Days. New York: Random House Publishing, 1963.
Published in 1963, this book is the one on which the historical aspects of the famous 1967 film, Bonnie and Clyde, is based. The book includes the stories of multiple outlaws in the time of the Depression Era, but focuses primarily on the story of famed outlaw John Dillinger. In the book, there is one important chapter that tells about Bonnie and Clyde. Toland controversially claimed that Clyde Barrow was a homosexual, a claim that would have significant influence over his character and Warren Beatty’s portrayal in the 1967 movie.
Part Two: In Memory
Movie poster for Arthur Penn’s 1967 classic, Bonnie and Clyde. Tagline: “They’re young, they’re in love, and they kill people.” (Source: Wikipedia).
Bonnie and Clyde. Directed by Arthur Penn, performed by Warren Beatty and Faye Dunaway. 1967. U.S.: Warner Bros.-Seven Arts. Film.
This film, according to multiple sources found in this research guide, re-popularized the story of Bonnie and Clyde in American pop culture. Produced at the height of the Counter-Culture Era, this film connected with many of its young audience and, despite early criticism, won two Academy Awards. Upon its release, the film encountered much controversy and criticism for its graphic nature and apparent glorification of violence and criminals. In many ways, it glamorizes the story of Bonnie and Clyde and deviates from historical reality. One such deviation is the film’s portrayal of Clyde as impotent. According to interviews with the writers and makers of the movie (below) Clyde was originally written to be portrayed as bisexual, based on the claim by John Toland in The Dillinger Days that Clyde was a homosexual. This was considered too controversial for the time period and the character was re-written as impotent. W.D. Jones and Blanch Barrow, members of the Barrow gang, also criticized the movie for its depictions of their respective characters and those of Bonnie and Clyde. Frank Hamer, the respected Texas Ranger that tracked down Bonnie and Clyde, is also portrayed as the spiteful, revenge-seeking villain of the movie. The movie, furthermore, evades many of the darker aspects of Bonnie and Clyde’s story, and instead focuses on the romantic aspects of the Bonnie and Clyde legend. Included below along with this source is the movie’s trailer, which features the film’s famous gunfight scenes and the tagline “They’re young, they’re in love, and they kill people.” Additionally, there are also two reviews of the film, written upon the 30th anniversary of its release, one of them (“Blasts from the Past”) including extensive interviews with the film’s director, producers, writers, and actors.
Warner Bros.-Seven Arts, Inc. “Bonnie and Clyde Trailer.” 1967. Online video clip. American Film Institute: afi.com (accessed November 19, 2014). http://www.afi.com/10top10/moviedetail.aspx?id=19356&thumb=1
Goldstein, Patrick. “Bonnie & Clyde & Joe & Pauline.” Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, CA), August 25, 1997.
Goldstein, Patrick. “Blasts From the Past.” Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, CA), August 24, 1997.
Toplin, Robert Brent. “Cinematic History: Where Do We Go From Here?” The Public Historian 25, No. 3 (Summer 2003), pp. 79-91.
This is an article discussing the relationship between film and history, citing Bonnie and Clyde as a significant example of that relationship. Toplin suggests that the art form of film molds historical events to deliver a message about the present, Bonnie and Clyde being an example of that in its being a reflection of the Counter-Culture Era. Filmmakers, asserts Toplin, choose the subjects of their historical films based on, “current fashions, attitudes, hopes, and anxieties of the viewing public.” Of Bonnie and Clyde, Toplin claims, “Hollywood’s Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow were anti-establishment, rebellious, and independent-minded. They also craved celebrity. David Newman, who helped to develop the original concept for this movie, promoted his project as a story about an unconventional couple that ‘would have been right at home in the Sixties.’ The movie, Bonnie and Clyde, was not only about two historical figures, he said it was also ‘about what’s going on now.’” With this source I have included a citation of Toplin’s book History by Hollywood: The Use and Abuse of the American Past, which is a grander analysis of what he puts forth in this article.
Toplin, Robert Brent. History by Hollywood: The Use and Abuse of the American Past. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1996.
Cardullo, Bert. “Look Back in Bemusement: The New American Cinema, 1965–1970.” The Cambridge Quarterly 37, no. 4 (2008): 375-386. http://muse.jhu.edu/ (accessed November 28, 2014).
This article takes a look at American films produced in the time of the New American Cinema from the years 1965-1970, citing Bonnie and Clyde (1967) as one of three films representing the changing film industry in this era. According to Cardullo, Bonnie and Clyde, along with The Graduate (1968) and Easy Rider (1969), was a reflection of prevailing attitudes towards society in the time of its making and release. This article focuses on explaining how Bonnie and Clyde and these other American films, “were exemplary and influential expressions of, that new spirit of political and cultural insubordination, that amateur and informal (anti-formal in some of its manifestations) call to order by which it was hoped that the frozen values and procedures of the dominant bourgeois society – forever faithful to sanctified forms and thus forever reproducing them – would be not so much overthrown as displaced.”
Hunter, Stephen. “Bonnie and Clyde Died For Nihilism.” Commentary 127, no. 7 (2009), pp. 77-80.
This source is an essay published in an academic journal describing the exploits of Bonnie and Clyde and the exploitation of their story in the media and pop culture, particularly in the movie Bonnie and Clyde. The author, who writes from a poignantly conservative and biting perspective, vilifies Bonnie and Clyde and those who have mythologized their story. He also faults those who revere the criminals as misfit heroes in the Depression Era and villainize the lawmen who pursued them. He discusses the portrayal of Frank Hamer in Penn’s Bonnie and Clyde, who was a well-respected man of the law and somewhat of a folk hero himself. He claims the movie depicted him as a vengeful buffoon who preferred to chase those who flouted him rather than help the people suffering in the Depression. I have included an important excerpt below:
“That all changed in 1967 when Arthur Penn’s film version came out with Warren Beatty and Faye Dunaway and created the Bonnie and Clyde most people remember: vibrant, beautiful movie stars with witty ripostes on their lips and grace in their limbs and superbly tailored haberdashery on their shoulders, while bluegrass legends Flatt & Scruggs plucked away brilliantly behind them. Quickly, they commanded the allegiance of Baby Boomers hungry for anti-establishment heroes, killed (virtually crucified) by ruthless officers out of mean-spirited vengeance. It was an easy generational transference for the nascent Boomers to see themselves as so beautiful, so in love, so radical, so entitled to self-expression, so embittered by a failing economic system, so martyred by a crusty older generation that despised them for those attributes exactly.”
The Bonnie Parker Story. Directed by William Witney, performed by Dorothy Provine. 1958. U.S.: American International Pictures. Film.
This is a film from 1958, which deviates greatly from the story of Bonnie and Clyde. The movie stars Dorothy Provine as Bonnie Parker, a “Cigar smoking hellcat of the roaring ‘thirties,” who leads a gang of criminals in a series of robberies and murders throughout the Southwest. In the movie, there is no Clyde Barrow, but rather Bonnie has a side-kick, Guy Darrow, who aids her in robberies and eventually in breaking her husband, Duke Jefferson, out of prison. In a botched robbery, Guy kills Duke, and he and Bonnie run away together until they are gunned down together in Louisiana. This film tells a story remarkably far from the story of Bonnie and Clyde, but it is significant for its characterization of Bonnie Parker as the scandalous and aggressive head of the criminal gang. Below I have included the movie’s advertising poster that shows Bonnie firing a machine gun while smoking a cigar.
Brown, Reynold. “Advertising Poster for the Film ‘The Bonnie Parker Story’” 1957. Poster.
Brantley, Ben. “Armed and Amorous Committing Cold-Blooded Musical: ‘Bonnie and Clyde’ With Laura Osnes and Jeremy Jordan.” New York Times (New York, NY), December 1, 2011.
This is an article from the New York Times reviewing the musical “Bonnie and Clyde” starring Jeremy Jordan and Laura Osnes. The article describes the depictions of Bonnie and Clyde as that of wild kids seeking fame. Most importantly, it describes how the story of Bonnie and Clyde is portrayed in relation to contemporary culture. Says Brantley: “Instead, this show has repackaged the tale of Bonnie and Clyde as a Story for Our Time, with implicit parallels between the lost ideals of one American era of privation and unemployment and our own. ‘This country’s had its day,’ Clyde snarls. That pronouncement is reflected in Tobin Ost’s weathered wooden sets, overlaid with Aaron Rhyne’s video projections, which summon the Dust Bowl images of photographers like Dorothea Lange.” The link provided below contains a series of clips of scenes and songs from the musical.
Laura Osnes and Jeremy Jordan in the “Bonnie and Clyde” musical (Source: New York Times)
Advertisement for the “On the Run Tour” starring Beyonce and Jay-Z (Source: Live Nation Entertainment)
“’03 Bonnie and Clyde”, On the Run Tour. Performed by Jay-Z and Beyoncé. Stade de France, Paris, September 12 and 13, 2014. Home Box Office, 2014.
This song, which is the first song made by recording artists Beyoncé and Jay-Z together from 2003, is the inspiration for the theme of their co-headlined 2014 “On the Run” concert tour. The tour includes staged videos of Beyoncé and Jay-Z acting as robbers, holding up banks, and carrying guns, which play along with their performances. This is a video showing Beyoncé and Jay-Z’s performance of “ Bonnie and Clyde” on their tour together. The song casts the famous music couple as the modern day Bonnie and Clyde. The song includes such lyrics as, “[Jay] All I need in this life of sin, is me and my girlfriend / [Bey] Down to ride ’til the very end, it’s me and my boyfriend.” In the video, Beyoncé wears a ski mask during the performance while Jay-Z wears a shirt bearing a black and white America flag. These symbols of the American flag and of robbers have a prominent role throughout the “On the Run” tour
“Part II (On the Run)”, On the Run Tour. Performed by Jay-Z and Beyoncé. Stade de France, Paris, September 12 and 13, 2014. Home Box Office, 2014.
This video is a performance of the follow-up song to “ Bonnie and Clyde.” The song performed includes such lyrics as “[Bey] Without you I got nothing to lose / [Jay] I’m an outlaw, got an outlaw chick,” and, “[Jay] She fell in love with the bad guy…/ [Bey] If it’s me and you against the world, then so be it.” The song plays on the romantic aspects of the Bonnie and Clyde legend in relating Beyonce and Jay-Z to a modern day Bonnie and Clyde. In this performance, as in that of “ Bonnie and Clyde,” a black and white American flag is included, this time as the skirt of Beyoncé’s dress.
3.) LOCAL MEMORY
Severely defaced monument marking the cite of Bonnie and Clyde’s deaths (Source: Associated Press)
Foster, Mary. “Town where Bonnie and Clyde checked out.” SFGate (San Francisco, CA), May 24, 2009.
This source is a news article describing the events surrounding the 75th anniversary of Bonnie and Clyde’s deaths in the town of Gibsland, Louisiana. The author describes a festival that is to be held to commemorate the event. The festival’s attractions include “four re-enactments planned for the festival… a pancake breakfast, parade and Bonnie and Clyde look-alike contest.” The article describes the memory of Bonnie and Clyde in the town of Gibsland as mysterious, romantic, and, importantly, as a source of income for the tiny town. Says the town’s mayor, Pat White, “‘For us it’s timber, oil and Bonnie and Clyde’.”
Hallman, Tristan. “Legacy of Dallas-based bank robbers Bonnie and Clyde lives on.” Dallas News (Dallas, TX), May 18, 2014.
This article is a story by a Dallas newspaper describing a Bonnie and Clyde museum located in Gibsland, LA. It features an interview with the museum’s curator, Boots Hinton, who is the son of one of the policemen that brought down Bonnie and Clyde, Ted Hinton. The Bonnie and Clyde Ambush Museum captures how the pair “went from an early life in the slums of West Dallas to become national icons, folk heroes, villains and hunted criminals,” through a collection of Bonnie and Clyde memorabilia that even includes a personal film by Ted Hinton shot immediately after the ambush of Bonnie and Clyde. The article also importantly includes interviews from relatives of Bonnie and Clyde and their experience grappling with their association with the famous pair. In the town of Gibsland, Bonnie and Clyde’s memory lives on in, “the imagination of the public, Hollywood, haunted descendants and [t]here on Main Street.”
The History of Clyde Shipbuilding 6 : The Clyde made Glasgow and Glasgow made the Clyde
The years of the post-World War 2 era marked the further decline and almost the complete death-knell for the Clyde River as shipbuilding centre. Fierce competition from rivals far more advanced in technology, efficiency and scientific management were leaving the Clydesiders trailing in their wake.
Attempts were made by both the industry and government to salvage the yards but it came too little too late. It took the imagination and determination of an organised workforce to partly save the industry and today there are still some yards operating on the river.
After World War 2
After the war the most important development in ship construction was the replacement of riveting by welding.
Larger and more standardised vessels built with the use of templates inspired a version of the Ford assembly lines in foreign competitors.
With bigger multi-yard firms and efficiently organised flow-line layout of yards, countries like Germany, Sweden and Japan were forging ahead of the British.
Naturally, the immediate post war period saw a reduction in warship orders but this was balanced by a boom in merchant ships. World trade rose 7% up until 1960 and consequently world seaborne trade rose from 460 million tons to over 2 billion tons in the 30 years up to the late 1960s. This was despite the fact that the jet aeroplane was gradually stealing freight and passenger traffic away from shipping lines.
In the UK the pressure of orders obscured the need for re-equipment and reconstruction, there was little long-term forward thinking or realisation of the modernisation of competitor nations. Foreign shipyards like Gotaverken in Sweden and Hamburg and Bremen in Germany were installing modern equipment and paying lower wages.
But they also introduced scientific management and technical oversight of the construction process. In the UK the Craft Unions&apos role was in protecting their membership, men with skilled occupations. The result was wage protection, demarcation disputes and an opposition to the dilution of skilled labour with manual workers.
There was some solace in the prestige of building the Royal Yacht Britannia which was launched at John Browns in 1953 and served the UK Royal Family for 44 years until being de-commissioned in 1997. It returned to Scotland and is now a museum stationed at the Leith harbour area in Edinburgh.
The end of the 1950s heralded the rise of other shipbuilding nations, recapitalised and highly productive. Japanese yards enjoyed the benefits of indirect subsidies on raw materials, low interest rates and low taxation. In West Germany they were offered tax relief and low interest rates for borrowing. In Sweden the shipbuilders could access the security of long-term credit facilities and were backed by their government and local authorities.
German and Japanese yards could deliver in half the time of the UK yards because of extensive mechanisation and improved production systems. Also, many of the traditional markets for the UK were stagnant with the old trade loyalties of the British Empire beginning to crumble. Even the US shipbuilding industry was in long-term decline except from occasional upward fluctuations.
In France the government also introduced subsidies but went even further with forced amalgamation and closure of unprofitable yards to rationalise their entire industry. The number of French yards halved from sixteen to eight and became larger in scale.
In the UK however the industry was too fragmented, with too many small independent yards that traditionally were often family-owned. Many Clydeside yards booked loss-making contracts in the hope of weathering the storm but more and more were closing and by the 1960s only a handful of shipbuilding and marine engineering firms continued operating along the River Clyde.
(photo by neilh205 at Flickr)
The crisis of the 1960s
By the mid 1960s, despite the fact that World merchant shipping doubled in only 10 years from 1959 to 1969, the Clyde was uneconomic and faced imminent collapse.
In the early 50&aposs the UK had produced 31% of new tonnage but by 1964 this had fallen to only 13% of tonnage.
Competition meant fixed-priced contracts but poor productivity and the rising cost of materials placed pressures on the Clydeside yards.
There was no single critical factor that explained the straitened circumstances of the industry. Unions were blamed for high wages and restrictive practices, management were criticised for being slow to modernise or rationalise and the government were held culpable for not intervening.
The year 1962 saw the closure of Harland and Wolff&aposs Linthouse yard as the company decided to consolidate its Belfast operations. A bankruptcy crisis loomed at Fairfields of Govan which was placed in receivership in 1965 but reconstituted. The Geddes Report of 1966 recommended economies of scale with amalgamation overseen by consortia in each UK region where shipbuilders operated.
In response the Government created the Upper Clyde Shipbuilders (UCS) consortium. Formed in 1968 from the amalgamation of five major Clyde Shipbuilding firms: Fairfields in Govan, Alexander Stephens and Sons in Linthouse, Charles Connell and Company in Scotstoun, Yarrow Shipbuilders Ltd in Scotstoun and John Brown and Company at Clydebank. Of the five, only Yarrow was profitable due to its specialisation in warship construction that was largely immune to the dictates of the trade cycle.
The building of the Queen Elizabeth II, or QE2 as it became known, was a loss-making contract for John Browns. Launched in 1967, it was the last hurrah for the great Clyde superliners as it descended down the slipway at Clydebank into the river. Its maiden voyage was from Southampton to New York in May 1969 and had been the beneficiary of an ꌘ million grant from the UK government.
It was smaller than the previous Queens at 1,777 passenger capacity as this would allow it to cross through the Suez and Panama Canals as a luxury cruise ship. However it still operated transatlantic crossings when sailing the oceans as one of the most prestigious luxury liners in the world.
By an incredible twist of fate it too was requisitioned as a British troop-ship after the Argentinian invasion of the Falkland Islands in 1982. It survived unscathed and today is berthed in Dubia as a hotel complex. It made a sentimental journey back to Greenock in 2007 to celebrate its 40th aniversary before leaving for the Middle-East.
However the lost glories of the Clydeside yards were brought into sharp focus in 2004 when the Queen Mary 2 was launched at St Nazaire in France. No Clydeside yards were involved in bidding for the contract of a ship that once would have been taken for granted.
The workers take action
Upper Clyde Shipbuilders were a short-lived enterprise as in 1971 they went into receivership.
The Conservative government under Edward Heath refused it a ਸ਼m loan and the industry was doomed.
The reaction of the unions was historic in the annals of industrial relations on the Clyde.
Rather than go on strike, a "work-in" was organised to complete the existing orders and led by the shop stewards. At the head of the movement were Jimmy Reid along with Jimmy Airlie and Sammy Barr.
Reid wanted the men to portray the best image of the workforce and insisted on tight discipline organised by shop stewards in each yard. It was a supreme irony that three members of the Communist Party of Great Britain battled to save a private enterprise that had been abandoned by the arch-capitalists in the Conservative Party.
The tactics employed by Jimmy Reid were very effective and public sympathy in the Glasgow area and beyond was on the side of the workers. This was backed up with demonstrations in Glasgow, one of which was attended by around 80,000 marchers. The result was a major victory when in February 1972 Heath&aposs government relented and retained Yarrow and Fairfields, who were merged together into Govan Shipbuilders and also sold John Brown as a going concern.
The rise of the east
In the past 30 years however the industry has been dominated by Japan then overtaken by South Korea in the 1980s, the latter accounting for around 40% of orders for ships in the beginning of the new century. Daewoo, Samsung and Hyundai have the dominant yards in South Korean shipbuilding with a cheap but educated and highly skilled labour force.
The Ulsan yard owned by Hyundai is the largest in the world, comprising 9 dry docks with a capacity of around 60 ships per year, mostly bulk carriers and container ships. However recently China has been making inroads into shipbuilding and sooner or later will became the leader in the world.
In the UK in 1977 the Labour government passed the Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act which nationalised most of the Clyde&aposs shipyards under a new company called simply British Shipbuilders. In the 1980s came privatisation and currently, three major shipyards remain in operation.
On the Upper Clyde at Govan and Scotstoun as BAE Systems Surface Fleet Solutions, both owned by BAE Systems, construction of technologically advanced warships for the Royal Navy and other navies. On the Lower Clyde, the Ferguson Shipbuilders at Port Glasgow are still in business for the construction of car ferries. Sadly, there are no longer any more ships being launched from Clydebank as the yards finally closed in 2001.
A final reflection
The story of shipbuilding on the River Clyde was a short-lived phenomenon in the longer course of modern industrial history. But a phenomenon it was when almost from nothing the quiet waters of the Clyde began to ripple with the first waves of progress. The legend of the enterprising Scot was never more exemplified by the great minds and tremendous achievements of the Clydeside engineers and entrepreneurs, whether in the boardroom, the design office or the shop floor.
The eventual dominance of the river over the oceans of the world represented an astonishing rise to prominence. In the 50 year period from 1870 till the First World War the Clyde shipyards were untouchable. Men sweated and toiled in these shipyards, men died in these shipyards. It could be a harsh and hazardous working life, unforgiving and unrelenting, but still there remained a great pride in building some of the most famous ships to sail the seas.
The fortunes of the cities and towns were inextricably linked with the activity on the river. Not for nothing arose the local saying &aposThe Clyde made Glasgow and Glasgow made the Clyde&apos.
History of Clyde Hill
September 29, 1882, Patrick Downey, an Irish immigrant, homesteaded a 160-acre tract of land on the southern slope of Clyde Hill. He was the first known settler in present-day Clyde Hill. Downey's tract was bounded by NE 8th Street on the south, 92nd Avenue NE on the west, NE 16th Street on the north, and 100th Avenue NE on the east. It included the Bellevue residential area now known as Vuecrest. Downey built a log cabin at 100th Avenue NE and NE 12th Street with the help of neighbors. Pat Downey reportedly lived in this cabin for two years before he discovered Meydenbauer Bay. From his cabin he hiked to Houghton (now south Kirkland), and rowed to Seattle when he wanted to go to the city. He remodeled and rebuilt several times and eventually the entire house was destroyed by fire in 1911.
In September 1888, Downey filed his final affidavit for a homestead claim, (SE of Section 30 in Township 25 N of Range 5 E), and described the property as timbered agricultural land. Timber was described as fir and cedar 2nd class. He said that in the process of clearing land, he cut, removed, and sold 296,000 board feet from 20 acres to a Terence O'Brien of Seattle.
By 1888, Downey had built an 18' X 27' log house one story high with shake roof. The house included four rooms and was valued at $300.00. In addition to the house, the Downey estate included a 16' X 22' shake barn, a 10' X 12' shake stable, a 8' X 10' shake hen house and a 8' X 10' shake storehouse. These additional buildings were valued at a combined $185. During this time Downey raised crops on about 11 acres of land for five seasons, including potatoes, oats, wheat and vegetables.
In 1888, Patrick Downey in his homestead claim cited Peter Buckley, John McRae, John Davis of Bellevue, Washington Territory and W. W. Easter of Seattle, Washington Territory as references for his claim. McRae, 49 years old, lived on nearby property. Peter Buckley, 42 years old, lived about 1/2 mile away and also gave testimony supporting Downey's homestead claim. Also living near Downey were W. E. Conway and Isaac Bechtel.
Downey eventually planted 15 acres of his claim in strawberries. These strawberries brought a premium from wholesalers on Western Avenue in Seattle. A number of farmers in Clyde Hill raised strawberries and the community was well known for that product. Downey would pack a load of strawberries in a wheelbarrow to the foot of Clyde Road (now 92nd Avenue NE) and board a little wood-burning steamer to Leschi in Seattle. There he could take a cable car over the Seattle hills from Leschi to Elliott Bay.
By 1890, about 20 families settled in the Clyde Hill, Medina and the downtown Bellevue area. In June 1900, the Federal Census of Bellevue Precinct, King County, Washington, encompassing about the same area, enumerated a total of 254 persons.
In June 1894, Patrick and wife, Victoria M. Downey, subdivided the north eighty acres of their original claim (from about NE 12th Street to NE 16th Street), most of which lay in present-day Clyde Hill. His plat, of which most of it is still known today, was entitled "Lake Washington Garden Tracts." Most of the subdivision was platted as 5-acre lots. Streets shown in the plat include Hunter Avenue (present 92nd Avenue NE), Bellevue Avenue (Present 100th Avenue NE) and Downey Street (NE 14th Street).
In 1905, early landowners within the present limits of Clyde Hill included:
George B. Shorey,
G. W. R. Pettibone,
D. T. Richards,
G. M. Talmage,
J. H. McDowell,
H. M. Leonard,
J. M. Frink,
M. K. Cradelle,
Susan A. Wells,
George A. Emory, and
1. Bonnie died wearing a wedding ring—but it wasn’t Clyde’s. Six days before turning 16, Bonnie married high school classmate Roy Thornton. The marriage disintegrated within months, and Bonnie never again saw her husband after he was imprisoned for robbery in 1929. Soon after, . read more
On May 23, 1934, notorious criminals Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow are shot to death by Texas and Louisiana state police while driving a stolen car near Sailes, Louisiana. Bonnie Parker met the charismatic Clyde Barrow in Texas when she was 19 years old and her husband (she . read more
12 Characteristics of the Social Outlaw
American historian Richard Meyer identified 12 characteristics that are common to social outlaw stories. Not all of them appear in every story, but many of them come from older ancient legends—tricksters, champions of the oppressed, and ancient betrayals.
- The social bandit hero is a "man of the people" who stands in opposition to certain established, oppressive economic, civil, and legal systems. He is a "champion" who wouldn't harm the "little man."
- His first crime is brought about through extreme provocation by agents of the oppressive system.
- He steals from the rich and gives to the poor, serving as one who "rights wrongs." (Robin Hood, Zorro)
- Despite his reputation, he is good-natured, kind-hearted, and frequently pious.
- His criminal exploits are audacious and daring.
- He frequently outwits and confounds his opponents by trickery, often expressed humorously. (Trickster)
- He is helped, supported, and admired by his own people.
- The authorities can't catch him through conventional means.
- His death is only brought about by the betrayal by a former friend. (Judas)
- His death provokes great mourning on the part of his people.
- After he dies, the hero manages to "live on" in a number of ways: stories say that he is not really dead, or that his ghost or spirit continues to help and inspire people.
- His actions and deeds may not always gain approval or admiration, but rather are sometimes decried in the ballads as mildly stated criticism to outright condemnation and refutation of all the other 11 elements.
Bonnie Elizabeth Parker was born in 1910 in Rowena, Texas, the second of three children. Her father Charles Robert Parker (1884–1911) was a bricklayer who died when Bonnie was 1 year old.  Her widowed mother Emma (Krause) Parker (1885–1944) moved her family back to her parents' home in Cement City, an industrial suburb in West Dallas where she worked as a seamstress.  As an adult, Bonnie wrote poems such as "The Story of Suicide Sal"  and "The Trail's End", the latter more commonly known as "The Story of Bonnie and Clyde". 
In her second year in high school, Parker met Roy Thornton (1908–1937). The couple dropped out of school and married on September 25, 1926 , six days before her 16th birthday.  Their marriage was marred by his frequent absences and brushes with the law, and it proved to be short lived. They never divorced, but their paths never crossed again after January 1929. She was still wearing his wedding ring when she died. [notes 2] Thornton was in prison when he heard of her death. He commented, "I'm glad they jumped out like they did. It's much better than being caught."  Sentenced to 5 years for robbery in 1933 and after attempting several prison breaks from other facilities, Thornton was killed while trying to escape from the Huntsville State Prison on October 3, 1937.
After the end of her marriage, Parker moved back in with her mother and worked as a waitress in Dallas. One of her regular customers was postal worker Ted Hinton. In 1932, he joined the Dallas Sheriff's Department and eventually served as a member of the posse that killed Bonnie and Clyde.  Parker briefly kept a diary early in 1929 when she was 18, in which she wrote of her loneliness, her impatience with life in Dallas, and her love of talking pictures. 
Clyde Champion Barrow   was born in 1909 into a poor farming family in Ellis County, Texas, southeast of Dallas.   He was the fifth of seven children of Henry Basil Barrow (1874–1957) and Cumie Talitha Walker (1874–1942). The family moved to Dallas in the early 1920s, part of a migration pattern from rural areas to the city where many settled in the urban slum of West Dallas. The Barrows spent their first months in West Dallas living under their wagon until they got enough money to buy a tent. 
Barrow was first arrested in late 1926, at age 17, after running when police confronted him over a rental car that he had failed to return on time. His second arrest was with his brother Buck soon after for possession of stolen turkeys. Barrow had some legitimate jobs during 1927 through 1929, but he also cracked safes, robbed stores, and stole cars. He met 19 year-old Parker through a mutual friend in January 1930, and they spent much time together during the following weeks. Their romance was interrupted when Barrow was arrested and convicted of auto theft.
Clyde was sent to Eastham Prison Farm in April 1930 at the age of 21. He escaped from the prison farm shortly after his incarceration using a weapon Parker smuggled to him. He was recaptured shortly after and sent back to prison.  Barrow was repeatedly sexually assaulted while in prison, and he retaliated by attacking and killing his tormentor with a pipe, crushing his skull.  This was his first killing. Another inmate, who was already serving a life sentence, claimed responsibility.
In order to avoid hard labor in the fields, Barrow purposely had two of his toes chopped off by either him or another inmate in late January 1932. Because of this, he walked with a limp for the rest of his life. However, Barrow was set free six days after his intentional injury. Without his knowledge, Barrow's mother had successfully petitioned for his release.  He was paroled on February 2, 1932 from Eastham as a hardened and bitter criminal. His sister Marie said, "Something awful sure must have happened to him in prison because he wasn't the same person when he got out."  Fellow inmate Ralph Fults said that he watched Clyde "change from a schoolboy to a rattlesnake". 
In his post-Eastham career, Barrow robbed grocery stores and gas stations at a rate far outpacing the ten or so bank robberies attributed to him and the Barrow Gang. His favorite weapon was the M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR).  According to John Neal Phillips, Barrow's goal in life was not to gain fame or fortune from robbing banks but to seek revenge against the Texas prison system for the abuses that he suffered while serving time. 
Several accounts describe Parker and Barrow's first meeting. The most credible states that they met on January 5, 1930 at the home of Barrow's friend Clarence Clay at 105 Herbert Street in the neighborhood of West Dallas.  Barrow was 20 years old, and Parker was 19. Parker was out of work and staying with a female friend to assist her during her recovery from a broken arm. Barrow dropped by the girl's house while Parker was in the kitchen making hot chocolate.  Both were smitten immediately most historians believe that Parker joined Barrow because she had fallen in love with him. She remained his loyal companion as they carried out their many crimes and awaited the violent death that they viewed as inevitable. 
1932: Early robberies and murders Edit
After Barrow's release from prison in February 1932, he and Fults began a series of robberies, primarily of stores and gas stations  their goal was to collect enough money and firepower to launch a raid against Eastham prison.  On April 19, Parker and Fults were captured in a failed hardware store burglary in Kaufman in which they had intended to steal firearms.  Parker was released from jail in a few months, after the grand jury failed to indict her Fults was tried, convicted, and served time. He never rejoined the gang.
On April 30, Barrow was the getaway driver in a robbery in Hillsboro during which store owner J.N. Bucher was shot and killed.  Bucher's wife identified Barrow from police photographs as one of the shooters, although he had stayed inside in the car.
Parker wrote poetry to pass the time in jail.  [notes 3] She reunited with Barrow within a few weeks of her release from the Kaufman County jail.
On August 5, Barrow, Raymond Hamilton and Ross Dyer were drinking moonshine at a country dance in Stringtown, Oklahoma when Sheriff C.G. Maxwell and Deputy Eugene C. Moore approached them in the parking lot. Barrow and Hamilton opened fire, killing Moore and gravely wounding Maxwell.   Moore was the first law officer that Barrow and his gang had killed they eventually murdered nine. On October 11, they allegedly killed Howard Hall at his store during a robbery in Sherman, Texas, though some historians consider this unlikely. 
W. D. Jones had been a friend of Barrow's family since childhood. He joined Parker and Barrow on Christmas Eve 1932 at the age of 16, and the three left Dallas that night.  The next day, Christmas Day of that year, Jones and Barrow murdered Doyle Johnson, a young family man, while stealing his car in Temple.  Barrow killed Tarrant County Deputy Malcolm Davis on January 6, 1933 when he, Parker, and Jones wandered into a police trap set for another criminal.  The gang had murdered five people since April.
1933: Buck and Blanche Barrow join the gang Edit
On March 22, 1933, Clyde's brother Buck was granted a full pardon and released from prison, and he and his wife Blanche set up housekeeping with Bonnie, Clyde and Jones in a temporary hideout at 3347 1/2 Oakridge Drive in Joplin, Missouri. According to family sources,  Buck and Blanche were there to visit they attempted to persuade Clyde to surrender to law enforcement. The group ran loud, alcohol-fueled card games late into the night in the quiet neighborhood Blanche recalled that they "bought a case of beer a day".  The men came and went noisily at all hours, and Clyde accidentally fired a BAR in the apartment while cleaning it.  No neighbors went to the house, but one reported suspicions to the Joplin Police Department.
The police assembled a five-man force in two cars on April 13 to confront what they suspected were bootleggers living in the garage apartment. The Barrow brothers and Jones opened fire, killing Detective Harry L. McGinnis outright and fatally wounding Constable J. W. Harryman.   Parker opened fire with a BAR as the others fled, forcing Highway Patrol Sergeant G.B. Kahler to duck behind a large oak tree. The .30 caliber bullets from the BAR struck the tree and forced wood splinters into the sergeant's face.  Parker got into the car with the others, and they pulled in Blanche from the street where she was pursuing her dog Snow Ball.  The surviving officers later testified that they had fired only fourteen rounds in the conflict  one hit Jones on the side, one struck Clyde but was deflected by his suit-coat button, and one grazed Buck after ricocheting off a wall.
The group escaped the police at Joplin, but left behind most of their possessions at the apartment, including Buck's parole papers (three weeks old), a large arsenal of weapons, a handwritten poem by Bonnie, and a camera with several rolls of undeveloped film.  Police developed the film at The Joplin Globe and found many photos of Barrow, Parker, and Jones posing and pointing weapons at one another.  The Globe sent the poem and the photos over the newswire, including a photo of Parker clenching a cigar in her teeth and a pistol in her hand, and the gang of criminals became front-page news throughout America as the Barrow Gang.
The photo of Parker posing with a cigar and a gun became popular:
John Dillinger had matinee-idol good looks and Pretty Boy Floyd had the best possible nickname, but the Joplin photos introduced new criminal superstars with the most titillating trademark of all—illicit sex. Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker were wild and young, and undoubtedly slept together. 
The group ranged from Texas as far north as Minnesota for the next three months. In May, they tried to rob the bank in Lucerne, Indiana,  and robbed the bank in Okabena, Minnesota.  They kidnapped Dillard Darby and Sophia Stone at Ruston, Louisiana in the course of stealing Darby's car this was one of several events between 1932 and 1934 in which they kidnapped police officers or robbery victims. [notes 4] They usually released their hostages far from home, sometimes with money to help them return home.  
Stories of such encounters made headlines, as did the more violent episodes. The Barrow Gang did not hesitate to shoot anyone who got in their way, whether it was a police officer or an innocent civilian. Other members of the Barrow Gang who committed murder included Hamilton, Jones, Buck, and Henry Methvin. Eventually, the cold-bloodedness of their murders opened the public's eyes to the reality of their crimes, and led to their ends. 
The photos entertained the public for a time, but the gang was desperate and discontented, as described by Blanche in her account written while imprisoned in the late 1930s.  [notes 5] With their new notoriety, their daily lives became more difficult, as they tried to evade discovery. Restaurants and motels became less secure they resorted to campfire cooking and bathing in cold streams.  The unrelieved, round-the-clock proximity of five people in one car gave rise to vicious bickering.  [notes 6] Jones was the driver when he and Barrow stole a car belonging to Darby in late April, and he used that car to leave the others. He stayed away until June 8. 
Barrow failed to see warning signs at a bridge under construction on June 10, while driving with Jones and Parker near Wellington, Texas, and the car flipped into a ravine.   Sources disagree on whether there was a gasoline fire  or if Parker was doused with acid from the car's battery under the floorboards,  [notes 7] but she sustained third-degree burns to her right leg, so severe that the muscles contracted and caused the leg to "draw up".  Jones observed: "She'd been burned so bad none of us thought she was gonna live. The hide on her right leg was gone, from her hip down to her ankle. I could see the bone at places." 
Parker could hardly walk she either hopped on her good leg or was carried by Barrow. They got help from a nearby farm family, then kidnapped Collinsworth County Sheriff George Corry and City Marshal Paul Hardy leaving the two of them handcuffed and barbed wired to a tree outside Erick, Oklahoma. The three rendezvoused with Buck and Blanche, and hid in a tourist court near Fort Smith, Arkansas, nursing Parker's burns. Buck and Jones bungled a robbery and murdered Town Marshal Henry D. Humphrey in Alma, Arkansas.  The criminals had to flee, despite Parker's grave condition. 
Platte City and Dexfield Park Edit
In July 1933, the gang checked in to the Red Crown Tourist Court  south of Platte City, Missouri. It consisted of two brick cabins joined by garages, and the gang rented both.  To the south stood the Red Crown Tavern, a popular restaurant among Missouri Highway Patrolmen, and the gang seemed to go out of their way to draw attention.  Blanche registered the party as three guests, but owner Neal Houser could see five people getting out of the car. He noted that the driver backed into the garage "gangster style" for a quick getaway.  Blanche paid for their cabins with coins rather than bills, and did the same later when buying five dinners and five beers.  [notes 8] The next day, Houser noticed that his guests had taped newspapers over the windows of their cabin Blanche again paid for five meals with coins. Her outfit of jodhpur riding breeches  also attracted attention they were not typical attire for women in the area, and eyewitnesses still remembered them forty years later.  Houser told Captain William Baxter of the Highway Patrol, a patron of his restaurant, about the group. 
Barrow and Jones went into town [notes 9] to purchase bandages, crackers, cheese, and atropine sulfate to treat Parker's leg.  The druggist contacted Sheriff Holt Coffey, who put the cabins under surveillance. Coffey had been alerted by Oklahoma, Texas, and Arkansas law enforcement to watch for strangers seeking such supplies. The sheriff contacted Captain Baxter, who called for reinforcements from Kansas City, including an armored car.  Sheriff Coffey led a group of officers toward the cabins at 11pm, armed with Thompson submachine guns. 
In the gunfight which ensued, the .45 caliber Thompsons proved no match for Barrow's .30 caliber BAR, stolen on July 7 from the National Guard armory at Enid, Oklahoma.  The gang escaped when a bullet short-circuited the horn on the armored car [notes 10] and the police officers mistook it for a cease-fire signal. They did not pursue the retreating Barrow vehicle. 
The gang had evaded the law once again, but Buck had sustained a bullet wound that blasted a large hole in his forehead skull bone and exposed his injured brain, and Blanche was nearly blinded by glass fragments in both her eyes.  
The Barrow Gang camped at Dexfield Park, an abandoned amusement park near Dexter, Iowa, on July 24.   Buck was sometimes semiconscious, and he even talked and ate, but his massive head wound and loss of blood were so severe that Barrow and Jones dug a grave for him.  Local residents noticed their bloody bandages, and officers determined that the campers were the Barrow Gang. Local police officers and approximately 100 spectators surrounded the group, and the Barrows soon came under fire.  Barrow, Parker, and Jones escaped on foot.   Buck was shot in the back, and he and his wife were captured by the officers. Buck died of his head wound and pneumonia after surgery five days later at Kings Daughters Hospital in Perry, Iowa. 
For the next six weeks, the remaining perpetrators ranged far afield from their usual area of operations, west to Colorado, north to Minnesota, southeast to Mississippi yet they continued to commit armed robberies.  [notes 11] They restocked their arsenal when Barrow and Jones robbed an armory at Plattville, Illinois on August 20, acquiring three BARs, handguns, and a large quantity of ammunition. 
By early September, the gang risked a run to Dallas to see their families for the first time in four months. Jones parted company with them, continuing to Houston where his mother had moved.   [notes 12] He was arrested there without incident on November 16, and returned to Dallas. Through the autumn, Barrow committed several robberies with small-time local accomplices, while his family and Parker's attended to her considerable medical needs. On November 22, they narrowly evaded arrest while trying to meet with family members near Sowers, Texas. Dallas Sheriff Smoot Schmid, Deputy Bob Alcorn, and Deputy Ted Hinton lay in wait nearby. As Barrow drove up, he sensed a trap and drove past his family's car, at which point Schmid and his deputies stood up and opened fire with machine guns and a BAR. The family members in the crossfire were not hit, but a BAR bullet passed through the car, striking the legs of both Barrow and Parker.  They escaped later that night.
On November 28, a Dallas grand jury delivered a murder indictment against Parker and Barrow for the killing – in January of that year, nearly ten months earlier – of Tarrant County Deputy Malcolm Davis  it was Parker's first warrant for murder.
1934: Final run Edit
On January 16, 1934, Barrow orchestrated the escape of Hamilton, Methvin, and several others in the "Eastham Breakout".  The brazen raid generated negative publicity for Texas, and Barrow seemed to have achieved what historian Phillips suggests was his overriding goal: revenge on the Texas Department of Corrections. [notes 13]
Barrow Gang member Joe Palmer shot Major Joe Crowson during his escape, and Crowson died a few days later in the hospital.  This attack attracted the full power of the Texas and federal government to the manhunt for Barrow and Parker. As Crowson struggled for life, prison chief Lee Simmons reportedly promised him that all persons involved in the breakout would be hunted down and killed.  All of them eventually were, except for Methvin, who preserved his life by setting up the ambush of Barrow and Parker. 
The Texas Department of Corrections contacted former Texas Ranger Captain Frank Hamer and persuaded him to hunt down the Barrow Gang. He was retired, but his commission had not expired.  He accepted the assignment as a Texas Highway Patrol officer, secondarily assigned to the prison system as a special investigator, and given the specific task of taking down the Barrow Gang.
Hamer was tall, burly, and taciturn, unimpressed by authority and driven by an "inflexible adherence to right, or what he thinks is right."  For twenty years, he had been feared and admired throughout Texas as "the walking embodiment of the 'One Riot, One Ranger' ethos".  He "had acquired a formidable reputation as a result of several spectacular captures and the shooting of a number of Texas criminals".  He was officially credited with 53 kills, and suffered seventeen wounds.  Prison boss Simmons always said publicly that Hamer had been his first choice, although there is evidence that he first approached two other Rangers, both of whom declined because they were reluctant to shoot a woman.  Starting on February 10, Hamer became the constant shadow of Barrow and Parker, living out of his car, just a town or two behind them. Three of Hamer's four brothers were also Texas Rangers brother Harrison was the best shot of the four, but Frank was considered the most tenacious. 
Barrow and Methvin killed highway patrolmen H.D. Murphy and Edward Bryant Wheeler on Easter Sunday, April 1, 1934 at the intersection of Route 114 and Dove Road, near Grapevine, Texas (now Southlake).   An eyewitness account said that Barrow and Parker fired the fatal shots, and this story received widespread coverage.  Methvin later claimed that he fired the first shot, after mistakenly assuming that Barrow wanted the officers killed. Barrow joined in, firing at Patrolman Murphy. 
During the spring season, the Grapevine killings were recounted in exaggerated detail, affecting public perception all four Dallas daily papers seized on the story told by the eyewitness, a farmer who claimed to have seen Parker laugh at the way that Murphy's head "bounced like a rubber ball" on the ground as she shot him.  The stories claimed that police found a cigar butt "with tiny teeth marks", supposedly those of Parker.  Several days later, Murphy's fiancée wore her intended wedding dress to his funeral, attracting photos and newspaper coverage.  The eyewitness's ever-changing story was soon discredited, but the massive negative publicity increased the public clamor for the extermination of the Barrow Gang. The outcry galvanized the authorities into action, and Highway Patrol boss L.G. Phares offered a reward of $1,000 for "the dead bodies of the Grapevine slayers"—not their capture, just the bodies.  Texas Governor Ma Ferguson added another reward of $500 for each of the two killers, which meant that, for the first time, "there was a specific price on Bonnie's head, since she was so widely believed to have shot H.D. Murphy". 
Public hostility increased five days later, when Barrow and Methvin murdered 60 year-old Constable William "Cal" Campbell, a widower and father, near Commerce, Oklahoma.  They kidnapped Commerce police chief Percy Boyd, crossed the state line into Kansas, and let him go, giving him a clean shirt, a few dollars, and a request from Parker to tell the world that she did not smoke cigars. Boyd identified both Barrow and Parker to authorities, but he never learned Methvin's name. The resultant arrest warrant for the Campbell murder specified "Clyde Barrow, Bonnie Parker and John Doe".  Historian Knight writes: "For the first time, Bonnie was seen as a killer, actually pulling the trigger—just like Clyde. Whatever chance she had for clemency had just been reduced."  The Dallas Journal ran a cartoon on its editorial page, showing an empty electric chair with a sign on it saying "Reserved", adding the words "Clyde and Bonnie". 
Barrow and Parker were killed on May 23, 1934, on a rural road in Bienville Parish, Louisiana.   Hamer, who had begun tracking the gang on February 12, led the posse. He had studied the gang's movements and found that they swung in a circle skirting the edges of five mid-western states, exploiting the "state line" rule which prevented officers from pursuing a fugitive into another jurisdiction. Barrow was consistent in his movements, so Hamer charted his path and predicted where he would go. The gang's itinerary centered on family visits, and they were due to see Methvin's family in Louisiana. In case they were separated, Barrow had designated Methvin's parents' residence as a rendezvous, and Methvin became separated from the rest of the gang in Shreveport. Hamer's posse was composed of six men: Texas officers Hamer, Hinton, Alcorn, and B.M. "Maney" Gault, and Louisiana officers Henderson Jordan and Prentiss Morel Oakley. 
On May 21, the four posse members from Texas were in Shreveport when they learned that Barrow and Parker were planning a visit to Bienville Parish that evening with Methvin. The full posse set up an ambush along Louisiana State Highway 154 south of Gibsland toward Sailes. Hinton recounted that their group was in place by 9 pm, and waited through the whole of the next day (May 22) with no sign of the perpetrators.  Other accounts said that the officers set up on the evening of May 22. 
At approximately 9:15 am on May 23, the posse were still concealed in the bushes and almost ready to give up when they heard the Ford V8 Barrow was driving approaching at high speed. In their official report, they stated they had persuaded Ivy Methvin to position his truck along the shoulder of the road that morning. They hoped Barrow would stop to speak with him, putting his vehicle close to the posse's position in the bushes. When Barrow fell into the trap, the lawmen opened fire while the vehicle was still moving. Oakley fired first, probably before any order to do so.    Barrow was killed instantly by Oakley's head shot, and Hinton reported hearing Parker scream.  The officers fired about 130 rounds, emptying their weapons into the car. [ citation needed ]  Many of Bonnie and Clyde's wounds would have been fatal, yet the two had survived several bullet wounds over the years in their confrontations with the law. 
The bullet-ridden Deluxe, originally owned by Ruth Warren of Topeka, Kansas, was later exhibited at carnivals and fairs then sold as a collector’s item in 1988, the Primm Valley Resort and Casino in Las Vegas purchased it for some $250,000. Barrow’s enthusiasm for cars was evident in a letter he wrote earlier in the spring of 1934, addressed to Henry Ford himself: “While I still have got breath in my lungs I will tell you what a dandy car you make. I have drove Fords exclusively when I could get away with one. For sustained speed and freedom from trouble the Ford has got every other car skinned and even if my business hasn’t been strictly legal it don’t hurt anything to tell you what a fine car you got in the V-8.”
According to statements made by Hinton and Alcorn:
Each of us six officers had a shotgun and an automatic rifle and pistols. We opened fire with the automatic rifles. They were emptied before the car got even with us. Then we used shotguns. There was smoke coming from the car, and it looked like it was on fire. After shooting the shotguns, we emptied the pistols at the car, which had passed us and ran into a ditch about 50 yards on down the road. It almost turned over. We kept shooting at the car even after it stopped. We weren't taking any chances. 
Actual film footage taken by one of the deputies immediately after the ambush show 112 bullet holes in the vehicle, of which around one quarter struck the couple.  The official coroner's report by parish coroner Dr. J. L. Wade listed seventeen entrance wounds on Barrow's body and twenty-six on that of Parker,  including several headshots on each, and one that had snapped Barrow's spinal column. Undertaker C.F. "Boots" Bailey had difficulty embalming the bodies because of all the bullet holes. 
The deafened officers inspected the vehicle and discovered an arsenal of weapons, including stolen automatic rifles, sawed-off semi-automatic shotguns, assorted handguns, and several thousand rounds of ammunition, along with fifteen sets of license plates from various states.  Hamer stated: "I hate to bust the cap on a woman, especially when she was sitting down, however if it wouldn't have been her, it would have been us."  Word of the deaths quickly got around when Hamer, Jordan, Oakley, and Hinton drove into town to telephone their respective bosses. A crowd soon gathered at the spot. Gault and Alcorn were left to guard the bodies, but they lost control of the jostling, curious throng one woman cut off bloody locks of Parker's hair and pieces from her dress, which were subsequently sold as souvenirs. Hinton returned to find a man trying to cut off Barrow's trigger finger, and was sickened by what was occurring.  Arriving at the scene, the coroner reported:
Nearly everyone had begun collecting souvenirs such as shell casings, slivers of glass from the shattered car windows, and bloody pieces of clothing from the garments of Bonnie and Clyde. One eager man had opened his pocket knife, and was reaching into the car to cut off Clyde's left ear. 
Hinton enlisted Hamer's help in controlling the "circus-like atmosphere" and they got people away from the car. 
The posse towed the Ford, with the dead bodies still inside, to the Conger Furniture Store & Funeral Parlor in downtown Arcadia, Louisiana. Preliminary embalming was done by Bailey in a small preparation room in the back of the furniture store, as it was common for furniture stores and undertakers to share the same space.  The population of the northwest Louisiana town reportedly swelled from 2,000 to 12,000 within hours. Curious throngs arrived by train, horseback, buggy, and plane. Beer normally sold for 15 cents a bottle but it jumped to 25 cents, and sandwiches quickly sold out.  Barrow had been shot in the head by a .35 Remington Model 8. Henry Barrow identified his son's body, then sat weeping in a rocking chair in the furniture section. 
H.D. Darby was an undertaker at the McClure Funeral Parlor and Sophia Stone was a home demonstration agent, both from nearby Ruston. Both of them came to Arcadia to identify the bodies  because the Barrow gang had kidnapped them  in 1933. Parker reportedly had laughed when she discovered that Darby was an undertaker. She remarked that maybe someday he would be working on her  Darby did assist Bailey in the embalming. 
Funeral and burial Edit
Bonnie and Clyde wished to be buried side by side, but the Parker family would not allow it. Her mother wanted to grant her final wish to be brought home, but the mobs surrounding the Parker house made that impossible.  More than 20,000 attended Parker's funeral, and her family had difficulty reaching her gravesite.  Parker's services were held on May 26.  Dr. Allen Campbell recalled that flowers came from everywhere, including some with cards allegedly from Pretty Boy Floyd and John Dillinger.  The largest floral tribute was sent by a group of Dallas city newsboys the sudden end of Bonnie and Clyde sold 500,000 newspapers in Dallas alone.  Parker was buried in the Fishtrap Cemetery, although she was moved in 1945 to the new Crown Hill Cemetery in Dallas. 
Thousands of people gathered outside both Dallas funeral homes, hoping for a chance to view the bodies. Barrow's private funeral was held at sunset on May 25.  He was buried in Western Heights Cemetery in Dallas, next to his brother Marvin. The Barrow brothers share a single granite marker with their names on it and an epitaph selected by Clyde: "Gone but not forgotten." 
The bullet-riddled Ford and the shirt that Barrow was wearing have been in the casino of Whiskey Pete's in Primm, Nevada since 2011 previously, they were on display at the Primm Valley Resort and Casino.  The American National Insurance Company of Galveston, Texas paid the insurance policies in full on Barrow and Parker. Since then, the policy of payouts has changed to exclude payouts in cases of deaths caused by any criminal act by the insured. 
The six men of the posse were each to receive a one-sixth share of the reward money, and Dallas Sheriff Schmid had promised Hinton that this would total some $26,000,  but most of the organizations that had pledged reward funds suddenly reneged on their pledges. In the end, each lawman earned $200.23 for his efforts and collected memorabilia. 
By the summer of 1934, new federal statutes made bank robbery and kidnapping federal offenses. The growing coordination of local authorities by the FBI, plus two-way radios in police cars, combined to make it more difficult to carry out series of robberies and murders than it had been just months before. Two months after Gibsland, Dillinger was killed on the street in Chicago three months after that, Floyd was killed in Ohio and one month after that, Baby Face Nelson was killed in Illinois. 
Parker's niece and last surviving relative is campaigning to have her aunt buried next to Barrow.  
The members of the posse came from three organizations: Hamer and Gault were both former Texas Rangers then working for the Texas Department of Corrections (DOC), Hinton and Alcorn were employees of the Dallas Sheriff's office, and Jordan and Oakley were Sheriff and Deputy of Bienville Parish, Louisiana. The three duos distrusted one another and kept to themselves,  and each had its own agenda in the operation and offered differing narratives of it. Simmons, the head of the Texas DOC, brought another perspective, having effectively commissioned the posse.
Schmid had tried to arrest Barrow in Sowers, Texas in November 1933. Schmid called "Halt!" and gunfire erupted from the outlaw car, which made a quick U-turn and sped away. Schmid's Thompson submachine gun jammed on the first round, and he could not get off one shot. Pursuit of Barrow was impossible because the posse had parked their own cars at a distance to prevent their being seen. 
Hamer's posse discussed calling "halt" but the four Texans "vetoed the idea",  telling them that the killers' history had always been to shoot their way out,  as had occurred in Platte City, Dexfield Park, and Sowers.  When the ambush occurred, Oakley stood up and opened fire, and the other officers opened fire immediately after.  Jordan was reported to have called out to Barrow  Alcorn said that Hamer called out  and Hinton claimed that Alcorn did.  In another report, each said that they both did.  These conflicting claims might have been collegial attempts to divert the focus from Oakley, who later admitted firing too early, but that is merely speculation.  In 1979, Hinton's account of the saga was published posthumously as Ambush: The Real Story of Bonnie and Clyde.  His version of the Methvin family's involvement in the planning and execution of the ambush was that the posse had tied Methvin's father Ivy to a tree the previous night to keep him from warning off the couple.  Hinton claimed that Hamer made a deal with Ivy: if he kept quiet about being tied up, his son would escape prosecution for the two Grapevine murders.  Hinton alleged that Hamer made every member of the posse swear that they would never divulge this secret.
Other accounts, however, place Ivy at the center of the action, not tied up but on the road, waving for Barrow to stop.   Hinton's memoir suggests that Parker's cigar in the famous "cigar photo" had been a rose, and that it was retouched as a cigar by darkroom staff at the Joplin Globe while they prepared the photo for publication.  [notes 14] Guinn says that some people who knew Hinton suspect that "he became delusional late in life". 
The posse never received the promised bounty on the perpetrators, so they were told to take whatever they wanted from the confiscated items in their car. Hamer appropriated the arsenal  of stolen guns and ammunition, plus a box of fishing tackle, under the terms of his compensation package with the Texas DOC. [notes 15] In July, Clyde's mother Cumie wrote to Hamer asking for the return of the guns: "You don't never want to forget my boy was never tried in no court for murder, and no one is guilty until proven guilty by some court so I hope you will answer this letter and also return the guns I am asking for."  There is no record of any response. 
Alcorn claimed Barrow's saxophone from the car, but he later returned it to the Barrow family.  Posse members also took other personal items, such as Parker's clothing. The Parker family asked for them back but were refused,   and the items were later sold as souvenirs.  The Barrow family claimed that Sheriff Jordan kept an alleged suitcase of cash, and writer Jeff Guinn claims that Jordan bought a "barn and land in Arcadia" soon after the event, thereby hinting that the accusation had merit, despite the complete absence of any evidence to the existence of such a suitcase.  Jordan did attempt to keep the death car for his own, but Ruth Warren of Topeka, Kansas sued him because she was the owner of the car when Barrow stole it on April 29  Jordan returned it to her in August 1934, still covered with blood and human tissue.  [notes 16] 
In February 1935, Dallas and federal authorities arrested and tried twenty family members and friends for aiding and abetting Barrow and Parker. This became known as the "harboring trial" and all twenty either pleaded guilty or were found guilty. The two mothers were jailed for thirty days other sentences ranged from two years' imprisonment (for Floyd Hamilton, brother of Raymond) to one hour in custody (for Barrow's teenage sister Marie).  Other defendants included Blanche, Jones, Methvin, and Parker's sister Billie.
Blanche was permanently blinded in her left eye during the 1933 shootout at Dexfield Park. She was taken into custody on the charge of "assault with intent to kill". She was convicted and sentenced to ten years in prison, but was paroled in 1939 for good behavior. She returned to Dallas, leaving her life of crime in the past, and lived with her invalid father as his caregiver. In 1940, she married Eddie Frasure, worked as a taxi cab dispatcher and a beautician, and completed the terms of her parole one year later. She lived in peace with her husband until he died of cancer in 1969. Warren Beatty approached her to purchase the rights to her name for use in the 1967 film Bonnie and Clyde, and she agreed to the original script. However, she objected to her characterization by Estelle Parsons in the final film, describing the actress's Academy Award-winning portrayal of her as "a screaming horse's ass". Despite this, she maintained a firm friendship with Beatty. She died from cancer at age 77 on December 24, 1988, and was buried in Dallas's Grove Hill Memorial Park under the name "Blanche B. Frasure". 
Barrow cohorts Hamilton and Palmer, who escaped Eastham in January 1934, were recaptured. Both were convicted of murder and executed in the electric chair at Huntsville, Texas on May 10, 1935.  Jones had left Barrow and Parker, six weeks after the three of them evaded officers at Dexfield Park in July 1933.  He reached Houston and got a job picking cotton, where he was soon discovered and captured. He was returned to Dallas, where he dictated a "confession" in which he claimed to have been kept a prisoner by Barrow and Parker. Some of the more lurid lies that he told concerned the gang's sex lives, and this testimony gave rise to many stories about Barrow's ambiguous sexuality.  Jones was convicted of the murder of Doyle Johnson and served a lenient sentence of fifteen years. He gave an interview to Playboy magazine during the excitement surrounding the 1967 movie, saying that in reality it had not been glamorous.  He was killed on August 4, 1974 in a misunderstanding by the jealous boyfriend of a woman whom he was trying to help. 
Methvin was convicted in Oklahoma of the 1934 murder of Constable Campbell at Commerce. He was paroled in 1942 and killed by a train in 1948. He fell asleep drunk on the train tracks, although some have speculated that he was pushed by someone seeking revenge.  His father Ivy was killed in 1946 by a hit-and-run driver.  Parker's husband Roy Thornton was sentenced to five years in prison for burglary in March 1933. He was killed by guards on October 3, 1937 during an escape attempt from Eastham prison. 
Prentiss Oakley admitted to friends that he had fired prematurely.  He succeeded Henderson Jordan as sheriff of Bienville Parish in 1940. 
Hamer returned to a quiet life as a freelance security consultant for oil companies. According to Guinn, "his reputation suffered somewhat after Gibsland"  because many people felt that he had not given Barrow and Parker a fair chance to surrender. He made headlines again in 1948 when he and Governor Coke Stevenson unsuccessfully challenged the vote total achieved by Lyndon Johnson during the election for the U.S. Senate. He died in 1955 at the age of 71, after several years of poor health.  Bob Alcorn died on May 23, 1964, 30 years to the day after the Gibsland ambush. 
The bullet-riddled Ford became a popular traveling attraction. The car was displayed at fairs, amusement parks, and flea markets for three decades, and once became a fixture at a Nevada race track. There was a charge of one dollar to sit in it. The Ford was sold between casinos after being displayed in a Las Vegas car museum in the 1980s it was shown in Iowa, Missouri, and Nevada. Since 2011, the Ford has been on display at Whiskey Pete's, a hotel and casino in Primm, Nevada, near the border between California and Nevada, alongside Interstate 15. 
Texas Rangers, troopers, and DPS (Department of Public Safety) [ clarification needed ] staff honored patrolman Edward Bryan Wheeler on April 1, 2011, the 77th anniversary of the Grapevine murders, when the Barrow gang murdered Wheeler on Easter Sunday. They presented the Yellow Rose of Texas commendation to his last surviving sibling, 95-year old Ella Wheeler-McLeod of San Antonio, giving her a plaque and framed portrait of her brother. 
Hollywood has treated the story of Bonnie and Clyde several times, most notably:
- To collect and preserve life history interviews of women who represent social and cultural change
- To create a collective account of women's 20th century history that reflects the diversity of women and represents the efforts of women of all religious, ethnic, and racial groups and across all geographic areas
- To work with the University of Utah's J. Willard Marriott Library archivists to identify and acquire the personal papers and collections of women
- To support opportunities for scholarship and writing about the activities of women in the 20th century in the form of scholarly grants and special events
Carolyn Tanner Irish Humanities BLDG
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